1.8.12

September

The Peoples Community Radio Link, 103.5 F.M Stereo


1st. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN 102: WALTER FRANCIS WHITE (1896-1955)
Hero's Day-United republic of Tanzania.
1912 Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (uk composer) dies. Born 1875. (composer)
1944  Archie Bell soul singer born on this day in Houston, Texas, USA. The group was formed by Archie and his friends who were all students at Leo Smith Junior High School in Houston, Texas. There first record was in the Ovide label in 1967. The single produced by Skippy Lee Frazier (their manager) was distributed by Atlantic records and initially a poor seller, it found success when the 'b' side was given airplay. The group is best remembered for the 3 million seller Tighten Up that reached No.1 R&B/POP. (mn)
1949  Greg Errico of Sly & Family Stone born today. A band that was dogged by Sly Stone's drug addition, who was jailed for possession of cocaine in 1987 and was fighting extradition charges. The group is best remembered for their 1968 hit Dance To The Music. (mn-jt)
1970 Dr. Hugh Scott of Washington, D.C., becomes the first African American superintendent of schools in a major U.S. city. (tr-iokts)

2nd. SEPTEMBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
 LEADERS/SPOKESMEN 103: WHITNEY M. YOUNG, JR.(1921 -1971)
1766 James Forten, born in   Philadelphia, Pa, USA. James Forten (17661842), an African-American abolitionist and business man, was born a free man in Philadelphia. At the age of 14, he joined the navy to serve on the Royal Lewis in the Revolutionary War, where he invented a device to handle ship sails. He was apprenticed as a sailmaker and became a foreman in 1786, and later owned his own company. Forten became an advocate of temperance, women's suffrage and equal rights for African-Americans. James Forten and Richard Allen formed the Convention of Color in 1817. The organization argued for the settlement of escaped black slaves in Canada but strongly opposed plans for repatriation to Africa. Forten specifically opposed the British policy of resettling black veterens of the Revolutionary War in Sierra Leone. With the help of Richard Allen and Absalom Jones, he enlisted 2500 Blacks to guard Philadelphia during the War of 1812. William helped his friend William Lloyd Garrison form the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 and contributed to his newspaper, the Liberty. Forten's daughter, Harriet, married Robert Purvis, and his daughter, Margaretta, was an officer of the Female Anti-Slavery Society in Philidelphia in 1845. His grandaughter, Charlotte Forten Grimké was a antislavery activist, poet, educator and abolitionist. (wickpedia)
1939  Bobby Purify soul singer with James & Bobby Purify born Robert Lee Dickey. Best remembered for 1967 hit 'I'm Your Puppet'.   This Southern soul duo were not actually brothers but cousins. James Purify and Robert Lee Dickey joined forces for some classic Southern soul duets during the mid-'60s. Producer Papa Don Schroeder brought the soulful Floridians to Muscle Shoals in 1966 to record at Rick Hall's Fame studios, and the result was the gorgeous mid-tempo "I'm Your Puppet." The Dan Penn/Spooner Oldham ballad proved their biggest hit for the Bell label, although "Let Love Come Between Us" and their revival of the Five Du-Tones' "Shake a Tail Feather" also made some major noise in 1967. When Bobby mutinied, James went it alone for a while before recruiting a new Bobby (Ben Moore), and they picked up right where the old duo left off. (mn-jt-bd)
1943  Joe Simon soul singer born in Simmersport, Louisiana, USA. His plaintive baritone equally conversant with R&B and country phrasing, Joe Simon married the two genres with startling success during the late '60s, adapting Nashville material to the soul sound and repeatedly coming up a winner. Simon began recording in the Bay Area, but a switch in recording sites (first to Muscle Shoals for Vee-Jay and then to Nashville, upon signing with disc jockey John Richbourg's Sound Stage 7 label in 1966) heightened his national appeal. With easy access to prime country-oriented material, Simon soon found his true calling, scoring major hits with "Nine Pound Steel," "(You Keep Me) Hangin' On," and the number one R&B smash "The Chokin' Kind," penned by Music Row tunesmith Harlan Howard. Still dabbling in country covers after switching to the Spring imprint in 1970, Simon was even more successful when assigned to Philadelphia wizards Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff, who produced the moody "Drowning in the Sea of Love" the next year. Simon tried his hand at disco in 1975 with the sizzling "Get Down, Get Down (Get on the Floor)" and "Music in My Bones," two of the most palatable artifacts of the era. Simon eventually retired from active performing to devote his life to the church. ~ Bill Dahl, All Music Guide
1943  Rosealind Ashford soul singer with Martha & Vandellas born. Along with the Supremes, Martha & the Vandellas defined the distaff side of the Motown sound in the 1960s; their biggest hits, including "Heat Wave," "Dancing in the Street," and "Nowhere to Run," remain among the most potent and enduring dance records of the era. The vocal group was led by Martha Reeves who, along with fellow Detroit natives Annette Sterling Beard, Gloria Williams, and Rosalind Ashford, founded the Del-Phis in 1960. After Reeves landed a secretarial position at the offices of Motown Records, the Del-Phis were tapped to record a one-off single for the label's Melody imprint, which they cut under the name the Vels.  (mn-jt)
1958  Race War Siege - Petrol Bomb thrown as 200 surround house. The       headline read in The Daily Herald - Fourty arrested as police, with dogs, swoop at midnight - men with knives rounded up. Fourty terified        Jamaicans barricaded themselves in their home last night - The               second night of London's race war. (mn-herald)
1960  Wilma Rudolph is first African American woman to win three gold medals at the Olympic Games. (tr-bl)
1965  Lennox Lewis WBC Heavyweight World Champion Boxer is born. Record: 32-1 (26). He resides in London, England and his best wins were Razor Ruddock; Tommy Morrison and Andrew Golata. (mn-ring)
1969   Norman Manley one time premier of Jamaica/leader of the West Indies Federal Labour Party dies. Now a Jamaican National Hero. Norman Washington Manley MM QC (July 4, 1893 - September 2, 1969), was a Jamaican statesman. A Rhodes Scholar, Manley became one of Jamaica's leading lawyers in the 1920s. With his cousin, Alexander Bustamante, Manley was an advocate of universal suffrage which was granted the colony in 1944. He founded the left wing People's National Party which later was tied to the Trade Union Congress and the National Workers' Union, together with Bustamante, in 1938, and led it in every election from 1944 to 1967. Their efforts resulted in the New Constitution of 1944 granting full Adult Suffrage. He served as the colony's Chief Minister from 1955 to 1959, and as Premier from 1959 to 1962. He was a proponent of the island's participation in the Federation of the West Indies but bowed to pressure to hold a referendum in 1961 which resulted in Jamaica withdrawing from the union.  (mn-cb)
1971 Julie Dexter jazz/soul singer born. Her parents are from Jamaica, and she was born and raised in Handsworth, Birmingham, til the age of six, then moved to Kings Norton. Julie went to Turves Green Girl School, Joseph Chamberlain College (same as me) then moved to London, and then to the states. Julie gained her chops for cutting her vocals on this record by touring several continents with jazz wunderkind Courtney Pine as a lead vocalist of his ensemble. This musical school of tough-love learning would also give her the confidence to begin to perform and record as a solo artist, garnering the seven song EP, Peace of Mind (2000) and then later the full-length recording, Dexterity (2002), both of which were independently released on her own label, Ketch A Vibe. These two recordings gained international acclaim for Julie's talents in addition to her collaborations with broken-beat innovator IG Culture ("The Plan" & "Free As") and bossa nova composer Thomas Naim ("Like Ours"). (bbc-juliedexter.com)
1975  Joseph W. Hatcher of Tallahassee, Fla., becomes the state's first African American supreme court justice since reconstruction. (tr-iokts)
1995  Frank Bruno wins WBC Heavyweight Championship title in a fight against Oliver McCall (USA) at Wembley Stadium, London, on points fter the twelth round. (mn)
1983  The Thatcher Government is alarmed by 'Black aspect' type education in our schools. They wanted history taught to project what the Times Higher Education Supplement called 'an interpretation of the British experience that is expedient to our present leaders rather than faithful to the historical record (They wanted 'Patriotic'  history!) (mn-pf)

3rd. SEPTEMBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  104: CHARLES H. HOUSTON (1895-1950)
1915  Memphis Slim blues man born Peter Chapman. He first left the US in 1960 in order to help organize the American Blues Festival in London. That was Europe's introduction to Blues and Memphis. After this he decided to live in France. He says "it wasn't until Elvis started playing the blues that white boys took any notice, until then it was called race music - now it's big money!". (dies February 24, 1988, Paris France. (mn-jt-rs)
1930  Dr. Charles Ssali born in Masaka, Prof. Ssali had a career that spurned three continents and several countries, including Uganda, Kenya, England and Saudi Arabia. He was Uganda's first ENT professor at Mulago. His product mariandina was supposed to cure AIDS. Dies 2004.
1934  Freddie King US blues guitarist born Freddie Christian. He was a major influence on popular British guitarists. Early work is found on King records. Throughout 1976, Freddie King toured America, even though his health was beginning to decline. On December 29, 1976, King died of heart failure. Although his passing was premature he was only 42 years old Freddie King's influence could still be heard in blues and rock guitarists decades after his death. (mn-jt)
1944  Harris 'BB' Seaton, reggae singer born. Began singing with the Gaylads with ska, but blossomed in the rocksteady era with hit after hit - including: Girl With The Red Dress On, Love Me With All Your Heart, You'll never leave him, You Should Never Do That and Red Rose. He did quite well as a solo artiste but never quite as big as when with the Gaylads. (mn-jahb-tr)
1970  Delegates from 27 African and Caribbean countries convened in Atlanta, Ga., for the first Congress of African People.
2000  R. H. Harris, last surviving member of the original Soul Stirers dies. Indisputably among the premier gospel groups of the modern era, the Soul Stirrers pioneered the contemporary quartet sound. Pushing the music away from the traditional repertoire of jubilees and spirituals towards the visceral, deeply emotional hard gospel style so popular among postwar listeners, the group's innovative arrangements -- they were the first quartet to add a second lead -- and sexually charged presence irrevocably blurred the lines between religious and secular music while becoming a seminal influence on the development of rock & roll and soul, most notably by virtue of their connection to the legendary Sam Cooke. The Soul Stirrers' origins date back to 1926, where in the town of Trinity, TX, baritone Senior Roy Crain formed a quartet with a number of other teens with whom he attended church. After one of the group's early appearances, a member of the audience approached Crain to tell him how their performance had "stirred his soul," and from this chance compliment the Soul Stirrers were officially born.
2011 McKinley 'Bug' Williams of soul group Maze passed away. Maze's percussionist and vocalist suffered a heart attack whilst the group were on the road for an appearance in Chattanooga, Tennessee. McKinley provided vocals on all songs. He was a lifelong friend of Frankie Beverly and was also a co-founder member of the band. He was also a member of the Butlers prior to Maze with Beverly, (br-mn)

4th. SEPTEMBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN   105: WILLIAM H. HASTIE
1838  Fredrick Douglass escapes from slavery, disguised as a sailor. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1818, and was given the name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey (Baly), after his mother Harriet Bailey. During the course of his remarkable life he escaped from slavery, became internationally renowned for his eloquence in the cause of liberty, and went on to serve the national government in several official capacities. Through his work he came into contact with many of the leaders of his times. His early work in the cause of freedom brought him into contact with a wide array of abolitionists and social reformers, including William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, John Brown, Gerrit Smith and many others. As a major Stationmaster on the Underground Railroad he directly helped hundreds on their way to freedom through his adopted home city of Rochester, NY. (tr-iokts)
1908  Richard Wright, author, born in Natchez, Ms, USA. Richard Wright's 1940 novel Native Son was a best-seller and is still considered a classic of modern American literature. One of the most influential African-American writers of the 20th century, Wright grew up in Mississippi and Tennessee, then ended up in Chicago at the age of 19. Self-educated, he turned to writing poetry and short stories. He received critical attention for his first book, Uncle Tom's Children (1938). After World War II Wright, disillusioned with race relations in the U.S., settled permanently in France. His other works include Black Boy (1945), The Outsider (1953) and a posthumously published collection of stories, Eight Men (1960). (mn)
1930  [Jerry Ragavoy] singer/songwriter/producer born in Philadelphia, USA. His career as a songwriter began in the doo-wop era of the early 1950s. His first successful act was the Castelles, who had a hit with My Girl Awaits Me in 1953. A white guy with a great sense of soul, wrote and produced some of the world's great soul gems.] (mn)
1942   Merald Knight a 'Pip' with Gladys Knight & Pips born. They made the Top Ten in 1961 with the heavily doo wop-influenced "Every Beat of My Heart," and recorded some fine, nowadays overlooked, pop-soul sides for the Fury and Maxx labels in the early and mid-'60s, sometimes under the direction of songwriter Van McCoy. A couple singles from this period, "Letter Full of Tears" and "Giving Up," made the Top 40, but Knight didn't hit his commercial stride until they moved to Motown in 1966. (mn-jt)
1946   Ronald La Pread soul singer with The Commodores is born. Known for such hits as "Just to Be Close to You," "Easy," and "Brickhouse," to name a few, the Commodores were one of the top bands during their long tenure at Motown. The group is credited with seven number one songs and a host of other Top Ten numbers on the Billboard charts. They also have a vast music catalog that has generated more than 50 albums, and the recordings continue to be in demand. The members of the Commodores, all of whom attended Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, came together as a result of two groups disbanding: the Mystics and the Jays. (mn-jt)
1948 Lewis Howard Latimer, the inventor is born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, USA. He patents Carbon filament for the incandescent lamp (the filament is a key part of a light bulb.) He was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, to Rebecca and George Latimer, who were runaway slaves. Rebecca and George were both born in Virginia. Lewis had a sibling: William H. Lattimer (1846-?) who worked as a barber. During the Civil War, Lewis served on the Navy's U.S.S. Massasoit. After receiving an honorable discharge on July 3, 1865, he gained employment as an office boy with a patent law firm, Crosby and Gould, with a $3.00 per week salary. Later, after his boss recognized his talent for sketching patent drawings, Latimer was promoted to the position of head draftsman earning $20.00 a week. He married Mary Wilson (1848-?) in November of 1873 but they didn't have any children. Mary was born in Rhode Island. In 1873, he invented an improved toilet system for railroad cars called the water closet for railroad cars. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell hired Latimer to draft the necessary drawings required to receive a patent for Bell's telephone. In 1880, he moved to Bridgeport, Connecticut and his brother, William, and his mother, Rebecca, lived with him and his wife. Lewis was hired as assistant manager and draftsman for the U.S. Electric Lighting Company. Latimer received a patent in January 1882 for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of lightbulb filaments which yielded longer lasting bulbs than Thomas Edison's technique. (wikipedia)
1957  Frankie Lymon dropped out of the UK chart for the last time while still not having reached his 15th birthday. (mn-jt)
1957  Arkansas governor Orvil Faubus calls out the National Guard to bar Negro students from entering a Little Rock high school. (tr-iokts)
1961  Yasus Afari, dub poet born John Sinclair in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica. Best known for I-Pen with Garnet Silk Born J. Sinclair, Jamaica, West Indies. There has been a myriad of dub poets in Jamaica, with Oku Onuora and Mutabaruka having carved a considerable niche in this particular market. Yusus Afari's recitals are comparable in both articulation and pronunciation to that of Mutabaruka. His earliest recording was produced by Courtney Cole and Barry O'Hare at the Grove Studios in Ocho Rios in the north of the island. Cole was proving to be a serious contender in the reggae field with his Roof International label, which introduced a number of new performers to the arena, including Mikey Spice and Garnett Silk. It was in combination with Silk that Afari's debut appeared; the duo covered Johnny Nash's "I Can See Clearly Now", interspersed with verses from Afari. In 1993 Afari had recorded an album's worth of material with assistance from Maxi Priest for the track "Work" and again with Silk for "People Dancing". Appearing in traditional African dress, Afari was proclaimed to be the Afromantic Honour Dread. In the spring of 1996 he accompanied fellow dub poet Mutabaruka, Tony Rebel and Uton Green on a tour of Ethiopia, (tr-rr)
1981  Destany's Child's, Beyonce Knowles born in Houston, Texas, USA. Beyoncé Giselle Knowles started performing at age seven. From dance classes to singing in the church choir, Beyoncé was a natural. She and cousin Kelly Rowland met Latavia Roberson during this time, and the trio formed a group with Letoya Luckett. Mathew Knowles, Beyoncé's father and Rowland's legal guardian, signed on to be the girls' manager. This situation would ultimately lead to the formation of one of the most popular female R&B groups of all time -- Destiny's Child. Destiny's Child made its debut 1990 and within ten years, the vocal act had experienced personal and political highs and lows that fueled the group's desire to make it big. Destiny's Child sold 33 million albums worldwide by 2002 and earned a slew of Grammys and additional music awards. "Jumpin' Jumpin'," "Bills, Bills, Bills," "Say My Name," and "Survivor" were smash hits, and the group appeared unstoppable. In 2001, Beyoncé, Rowland, and Michelle Williams allowed themselves a break from the singing group and tried their hands at individual solo careers. Before landing several movie roles, Beyoncé became the first African-American female artist and second woman ever to win the annual ASCAP Pop Songwriter of the Year Award. An appearance in the MTV drama Carmen: A Hip Hopera quickly followed, but it was her role as Foxxy Cleopatra in Austin Powers in Goldmember in 2002 that eventually moved Beyoncé from the stage to the screen. Her first single, "Work It Out," coincided with the release of the Mike Myers comedy and cemented her celebrity status. A guest spot on Jay-Z's "'03 Bonnie & Clyde" was equally popular when it appeared in October. In 2003, she rejoined Jay-Z for her proper debut single, the funkadelic "Crazy in Love," as the press and fans christened her a bona fide star. Beyoncé's debut album, Dangerously in Love, which appeared in June 2003, featured collaborations with Sean Paul, Missy Elliott, and OutKast's Big Boi. The multiplatinum album spawned a total of four Top Ten singles. Nearly two years after another Destiny's Child album (Destiny Fulfilled), Beyoncé released her second album, B'day. ~ MacKenzie Wilson, All Music Guide
1984  First Tuesday: Mary Seacole (A Notable Nurse) - Is broadcasted by ITV television. A Yorkshire Television production. Short profile of the nineteenth-century Jamaican nurse Mary Seacole (1805-81) who was decorated by Queen Victoria for her work in the Crimean War. (mn-sb)
2009 Michael Jackson funeral. Friends and family of Michael Jackson have paid their last respects to the singer known as the King of Pop at a funeral ceremony outside Los Angeles. Dame Elizabeth Taylor, actor Macaulay Culkin and music producer Quincy Jones were among the 200 invited guests.  Gladys Knight sang at the service while civil rights campaigner the Reverend Al Sharpton was one of the speakers. The ceremony was due to begin at 0200 GMT at Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park but began more than an hour late. (bbc)
2012 Lillian Lopez, one of the founding members of soul group Odyssey, passed away from cancer. She was 76. Odyssey, the brainchild of sisters Lillian and Louise Lopez. Tony Reynolds came on board for their first album, Odyssey, which produced their biggest U.S. hit, Native New Yorker in 1977 along with the single Weekend Lover released the same year. McEachern replaced Reynolds starting with the second album, Hollywood Party Tonight released in 1978. They never had another Pop or R&B hit in the U.S. but were well received in the U.K. with singles such as, Use It Up and Wear It Out went #1 on U.K charts in 1980, If You’re Lookin’ For a Way Out (1980/#8 U.K.), Going Back to My Roots (1981/#4 U.K.) and Inside Out (1982/#3 U.K.). Lillian continued to tour Europe and the Middle East with Al Jackson and Steven Collazo as Odyssey until 2000 when she married Jackson and retired from the business. She went on to become an author, writing the books Bowling Green (2003) and Eight Short Stories For Children (2011). (br-mn)

5th. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  106: JAMES B. PARSONS
1859  Our Nig, by Harriet E. Wilson, is published, the first U.S. novel an African American woman. (tr-iokts)
1922  Zuzu Bollin, journeyman jump-blue singer/guitarist, born, A.D. Bollin, Frisco, Texas, UA. Dies October 26, 1990, West Dallas, Texas, USA. Two 78s in the early '50s and a 1989 rediscovery album don't add up to much of a recorded legacy. But Zuzu Bollin's contribution to the Texas blues legacy shouldn't be overlooked his T-Bone Walker-influenced sound typified postwar Lone Star blues guitar.  (mn-rs-bd)
1960  Leopold Sedar Senghor, poet, politician, elected president of Senegal. A darling of French literary salons, Senegal's first president, Leopold Sedar Senghor, was much admired for his poetic output. His detractors, however, saw in him the archetypal neo-colonial stooge -- a protégé of the French political establishment. His admirers appreciated that he stepped down from office to concentrate on his poetry and art. He himself wanted to be remembered as a poet, not a politician. (b.1906-d.2001) (mn)
1937  Dave Pratter soul singer with Sam and Dave born in Georgia, USA. (other ref 9-5-37) Best remembered for Soul Man in 1967 and Hold On I'm Coming in 1969 for Stax Records. Mr. Prater was arrested in the summer of 1987 in Paterson for selling a vial of crack to an undercover police officer. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to three years' probation and ordered to pay a $2,580 fine and perform community service. He died in a car crash on 9-4-88 (mn)
1946  Buddy Miles singer/drummer born. Miles was the drummer for Wilson Pickett until in 1967 he joined the Electric Flag. Buddy was part of the ill fated Band of Gypsies for Jimmi Hendrix in 1969, also the guiding force behind the California Raisins, a cartoon group inspired by television advertising. (mn-jt)
1998  Birmingham's Bill Duffus organises a one day event designed to bring together all factions of black community entitled Vision 2000. (mn)

6th. SEPTEMBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT
 LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  107: THURGOOD MARSHALL (1908-     )
Independence Day - The Kingdom of Swaziland.
1888  Lee Roy Young becomes the first African American Texas Ranger in the force's 165-year history. (tr-iokts)
1925  Jimmy Reed singer born Mathis James Reed in Mississippi, USA; he suffered from epilepsy from the mid-60s and died in his sleep in 1976 in California, but not before becoming a much loved and influential blues singer and songwriter; he also played guitar and harmonica. He signed with Vee Jay in Chicago and had 13 influential R&B hits 1956-61, Baby What You Want Me To Do was covered by Elvis Presley, and Honest I Do By Aretha Franklin and the Rolling Stones. d.29/9/76
1946  Billy Preston, soul singer/keyboards, born, Houston, Texas, USA. At age twelve he had a cameo role in a film about W.C. Handy, St. Louis Blues, in which he played the composer as a child. Already an established keyboard session player in America, then fifteen year old Billy Preston first met the Beatles in 1962 in Hamburg while he was touring with Little Richard. Because of their closeness in ages, he and George Harrison became close friends. Billy got to spend much time with the Beatles and see them perform during this exciting time. Billy went on to play keyboards for Sam Cooke, and also in the band on the Shindig TV show. His first charting record was an instrumental gospel album, The Most Exciting Organ Ever, for Vee Jay records in 1966.  The Get Back single was credited as "The Beatles with Billy Preston", the first time another artist was credited on a Beatles record, gaining him the title in some circles as "the fifth Beatle". In addition, although you can barely see it in the Let It Be movie, Billy played with the group on the famous "Rooftop Concert", the Beatles last live appearance together.  Billy had many gold singles in the early seventies, including Will It Go 'Round In Circles, Nothing From Nothing and Outa Space, which also won the Grammy as Best Pop Instrumental. In 1975 he wrote You Are So Beautiful, which became a big hit for Joe Cocker, and he also toured with the Rolling Stones. And in 1978, Billy Preston's Beatles connection came full circle as he appeared with the Bee Gees in the title role of Robert Stigwood's movie Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, music produced by George Martin. (cl)
197 Foxy Brown, singer/rapper, born, Inga Marchland, New York. Before she had released any material at all, Foxy Brown appeared on several 1995-1996 platinum singles, including her first credit, LL Cool J's "I Shot Ya," as well as Total's "No One Else" remix of Jay-Z's "Ain't No...," Toni Braxton's "You're Makin' Me High" remix, and Case's "Touch Me, Tease Me." The incredible success led to a major-label bidding war at the beginning of 1996, and by March, Brown had signed with the Def Jam label as another in the ranks of young and hard female rappers. The Brooklyn native separate from a similarly named reggae artist was born in 1979; in 1994, while still a teenager, she won a talent contest in Brooklyn, and was invited to freestyle on stage. At that time, Trackmasters were working on LL Cool J's Mr. Smith album, and they decided to let her rap over "I Shot Ya." The single became a hit, prompting Brown's work with Total, Braxton, and Case, as well as her induction into the Firm posse (led by Nas and also including AZ and Cormega). Brown's debut album, Ill Na Na, was produced by Trackmasters, and featured appearances from Blackstreet, Method Man, and Kid Capri. It hit number seven its first week on the album charts. China Doll followed in early 1999 and the provacativity continued on 2001's Broken Silence. (mn-ct)
1969  Cee Cee Peniston, singer born Cecelia Peniston in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. She started acting at high school when in her early teens. She went on to win talent contests and was Miss Black Arizona and Miss Galaxy. She worked as a backing singer while at school where she wrote her first hit, Finally. Her albums include Finally (1992) and Moving On (1996). (mn-cl)
1987  Dr. Benjamin Carson separates Siamese Twins joined at the head.  Carson made medical history with this operation. The Binder twins were born joined at the back of the head. Operations to separate twins joined in this way had always failed, resulting in the death of one or both of the infants. Carson agreed to undertake the operation. A 70-member surgical team, led by Dr. Carson, worked for 22 hours. At the end, the twins were successfully separated and can now survive independently. (mn)

7th. SEPTEMBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  108: RALPH J. BUNCHE (1904-1971)
1761  Princess Charlotte Sophia of African ancestry marries George III (who was soon to become king of England.) Born May 19, 1744 as Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte first met her future husband, King George III, on her September wedding day in 1761. This arranged marriage was, nonetheless, fruitful and Queen Charlotte bore 15 children. That she was strong, prolific, a devoted wife and mother and lived to age 74 is common knowledge, but little else is known about Princess Charlotte. In a gallant effort to learn more about the mysterious woman who became namesake to Charlotte, NC (and Charlottesville, Virginia). (mn)
1914 Jean Blackwell Hutson born, for thirty-two years Jean Blackwell Hutson guided the development of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the world's most comprehensive collection of materials documenting the history and culture of people of African descent. From curator in 1948 to chief until 1980, she worked to acquire, catalogue, and exhibit materials under the auspices of the New York Public Library. She lectured on history at the City College of New York for over a decade and retired in 1984 (tr-bl)
1934  'Little' Milton Champbell soul singer/guitar player born James Milton Campbell, Inverness, Mississippi, USA. Blues singer, songwriter and guitarist "Little" Milton Campbell, noted for writing and recording the blues anthem The Blues Is Alright,. Born to sharecropping farmers near the Mississippi Delta town of Inverness, his father, "Big" Milton Campbell, was known locally playing blues gigs around town. "Little" Milton picked up a guitar at age 12 and recorded his first hit for Sam Phillips' Sun Records at age 18. Discovered by blues-rocker Ike Turner, Campbell spent most of his storied career in the shadow of B.B. King. His down-home vocal style and songwriting was often reminiscent of Kings approach. Among Campbells hits were "I'm a Lonely Man" and "That Will Never Do" under Bobbin records; the 1965 hit "We're Gonna Make It" for Chess Records, as well as "Baby I Love You," "If Walls Could Talk," "Feel So Bad," "Who's Cheating Who?" and "Grits Ain't Groceries." He released "Annie Mae's Cafe" and "Little Bluebird" after signing with Memphis' Stax Records in 1971 before the label folded. Died  from a stroke suffered July 27/2005 in Memphis. He was 71. (mn-rs)
1939  Latimore, soul singer born Benjamin Laitimore, Charlston, Tennessee, USA. Deep-voiced Latimore's sultry mid-'70s output for Miami's Glades label was a steamy marriage of soul and blues. Initially billed as Benny Latimore, the Tennessean began recording for Miami mogul Henry Stone in 1965, and his late-'60s Dade singles are solid deep-soul. Dropping his first name on Glades, Latimore finally found stardom in 1973 with a jazzy reading of T-Bone Walker's "Stormy Monday." He topped the soul lists in 1974 with the anguished "Let's Straighten It Out," a simmering soul/blues hybrid, and encored with the incendiary "Keep the Home Fires Burnin'" the next year. Most of Latimore's Glades sides were produced in Miami by Steve "Every Day I Have to Cry" Alaimo, and when he wasn't cutting his own hits, Latimore acted as a house pianist for parent TK Records. Latimore moved to Malaco during the '80s, his appeal undiminished. (mn-cl)
1946  Alfa Anderson soul singer with Chic born. Formed in 1977 Chic were the most creative and innovative of the successful artists of the 'Disco Era'. Edwards (1952-1996) and Rodgers (1952-) had worked together in The Apollo Theater orchestra moving with Thompson into The Big Apple Band, who eventually backed short-lived vocal group, New York City. Around the mid-1970s, the three musicians began to offer demo tapes around New York consisting of a stripped-down soul rhythm which incorporated elements of Motown's pop sensibility and the rawness of James Brown, mixed into the all-pervading disco beat. (mn-jt)
1947  Gloria Gaynor 'The Queen of Disco', singer born in Newark, New Jersey, USA.  Gloria Gaynor (real name Gloria Fowles), is a singer best-known for the disco hit songs "I Will Survive" (Hot 100 #1, 1979) and "Never Can Say Goodbye" (Hot 100 #9, 1974). She was a singer with the Soul Satisfiers, a jazz/pop band, in the 1960s. Her first solo single was "She'll Be Sorry / Let Me Go Baby" (1965). The lyrics of "I Will Survive" are written from the point of view of a woman, recently dumped, telling her ex-lover that she can cope without him and does not want anything more to do with him. The song has become something of an anthem of female emancipation, and is still a staple of office parties and karaoke nights, not to mention an anthem in North American gay culture. In 1999, Pixar animator Victor Navone used this song to create an alien music video which for a time was a minor Internet phenomenon. An interesting piece of trivia about "I Will Survive" is that it was originally the B-side when Polydor Records released it in 1979. The A-side, a song called "Substitute", was considered to be more "radio friendly." Radio DJs flipped the record over and audience response forced the record company to flip the songs and subsequent copies of the single listed "I Will Survive" on the A-side. "Never Can Say Goodbye" was the first song to top Billboard magazine's dance chart.  (mn-wickpedia)
1954  School integration begins in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Md. public schools.
1963  Easy-E, rapper, born Eric Wright, Compton, CA., USA. Whether as a member of N.W.A., a solo act, or a label head, Eazy-E was one of the most controversial figures in gangsta rap. While his technical skills as a rapper were never the greatest, his distinctive delivery (invariably described as a high-pitched whine), over-the-top lyrics, and undeniable charisma made him a star. Following N.W.A.'s breakup, E's street credibility took a major beating, though his recordings continued to sell well when they appeared; unfortunately, he was diagnosed with AIDS in 1995, and died not long after. (mn-jf)
1971  Shane Mosley IBF Lightweight World Champion Boxer is born. Record: 23-0 (13).  Best wins: Phillip Holiday; Manuel Gonzalez. He lives in Los Angeles, California, USA. (mn-ring)
1984  Soul singer Janet Jackson announces that she had married James DeBarge. It was all over by 1995. (mn-jt)
2000  'Sweet' James Epps, soul singer with the Ric-Tic/Motown/Westbound  group the Fantastic Four dies from heart attack. Detroit R&B and soul group the Fantastic Four formed in 1965. "Sweet" James Epps, Ralph and Joseph Pruitt, and Wallace Childs were the original members. Childs and Ralph Pruitt later departed, and were replaced by Cleveland Horne and Ernest Newsome. Their first single on Ric-Tic, "The Whole World Is a Stage," was their lone huge hit, peaking at number 6 on the R&B charts in 1967. The next release, "You Gave Me Something (And Everything's Alright)," reached number 12 that same year. Motown eventually purchased Ric-Tic, and they had another Top 20 R&B hit with "I Love You Madly," which came out in 1968 and was also issued on Soul. They enjoyed renewed appeal during the disco era with some singles on Westbound that were moderately successful, among them "Alvin Stone (The Birth & Death of a Gangster)" and "I Got to Have Your Love." Dennis Coffey produced "B.Y.O.F. (Bring Your Own Funk)" in 1979, but didn't have much luck with it. the Fantastic Four have remained active, and released "Working on a Building of Love" in 1990 for Britian's Motorcity label. In 2000, however, the Fantastic Four lost one of its long-time members, Cleveland Horne when he suffered a heart attack and died on April 13, 2000. (i-t-b/mn/Ron Wynn)
2008 Richard "Popcorn" Wylie dies. b. Richard Wayne Wylie, 6th June 1939, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. d. 7th September 2008, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. Pianist and producer Richard 'Popcorn' Wylie has passed away. He was 69. Richard worked with The Funk Brothers, Barrett Strong (on 'Money'), The Miracles (on 'Shop Around') and The Marvelettes (on 'Please Mr. Postman'). Born in Detroit, he put together his first group at high school, along with James Jamerson and Clifford Mack. He recorded his first song for Ed and JoAnne in March 1964, and joined Motown Records in 1959, through his friendship with Robert Bateman, and took the first Motown Reviews on the road as bandleader. At Motown he released 'Shimmy Gully', one of the earliest Motown releases. His group, Popcorn and The Mohawks, had three releases on the Motown label in 1961. Richard left Motown in 1962 and worked as a freelancer at the Correc-tone and Continental imprints and signed with Epic Records. At Epic he made his debut with 'Come to Me', followed a year later by the song 'Brand New Man' and 'Head Over Heels in Love'. At the Golden World imprint he worked on some songs for the Reflections. Whilst a songwriter, producer and session player for the small Detroit labels SonBert and Ric-Tic. In 1966 he formed his own label, Pameline, releasing songs for the Detroit Executives, including the 1967 Northern soul evergreen 'The Cool-Off'. Richard Popcorn Wylie's Northern Soul output featured recordings for Carl Carlton ('Nothing No Sweeter Than Love'), the Debonaires ('Eenie Meenie') and Stewart Ames ('King For A Day' / 'Angelina'). In 1971 Richard signed with Motown's Soul subsidiary to record 'Funky Rubber Band'. The single remained unreleased until 1975 and became a U.K. club favourite. Richard recorded two more 1975 singles on ABC, namely 'Lost Time' and 'Georgia's After Hours' as a solo artist. Later he was to record for Ian Levine's Motorcity imprint during the early 1990's, releasing 'See This Man In Love'. (soulwalking.co.uk)

8th. SEPTEMBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN 109: MARTIN LUTHER KING (1929-1968)
1958  David Lewis soul singer with Atlantic Starr born.Atlantic Starr was among the top urban contemporary acts of the '80s and fared well in the adult contemporary market as well, but their roots were '70s soul and funk. The East Coast outfit was formed in White Plains, NY, in 1976. (mn-jt)
1928  Jackie Lee soul singer and member of Hollywood Flames born. L.A. R&B legend Jackie Lee's career was intrinsically connected to two other L.A. vocalists in particular, Bobby Byrd (aka Bobby Day) and Bobby Relf, but his biggest solo success was recorded without help from either one. During the early to mid-'60s, he recorded solo R&B tracks under a various names, including Jay Dee, Earl Cosby, Chip Nelson, and finally, as Jackie Lee. It was under this name that Nelson scored his biggest solo hit with the popular R&B dance number "The Duck," waxed in 1965 for Mirwood Records. (mn-jt/Bryan Thomas)
1965  Dorothy Dandridge, nominated for an Oscar for her performance in Carmen Jones, dies. Dorothy Dandridge was born November 9,1923 in Ohio. She was very talented as a small child,and her parents decided on a career in show buisiness for her at an early age. After moving to Hollywood Dorothy soon landed her first role in the Marx Bros. film "A Day At The Races" in which she had a small role. Despite the racial adversities in Hollywood at that time Dorothy still managed to find work; but she did not want to be stereotyped. She was established as a credible actress in her next role in 1940 in "Four Shall Die". She had to rely on her talents as a singer to support herself when she was not making films. Descrimination followed her career in Hollywood ,but she was the first Black-American to be nominated for the role of Best Actress in a motion picture in 1954, but lost the award to Grace Kelly. Her first husband was the dancer Harold Nicholas, of the Nicholas Bros. Before her movie career she was also a member of the singing group " the Dandridge Sisters", with her sister Vivian, and a childhood friend . "Carmen Jones " is considered to be her best film. She also had great roles in "Porgy and Bess", "Bright Road" and "Island In The Sun". Her life was tragic from her childhood because of child abuse and cruelty;to her adulthood,where she succumed to alcoholism;and became addicted to sleeping pills.Sept 8 1965 she died as a result of an overdose of sleeping pills. One of the most beautiful women in Hollywood rose from poverty to success , but could not find happiness. (mn)
1965  M.C. Shan, wise guy rapper from Brooklyn, real name Shawn Moltke, born. According to legend, MC Shan (b. Shawn Moltke) got his big break in 1983 when the future boss of Cold Chillin' Records caught Shan trying to steal his car. Although the fact that old-school super-producer Marley Marl was Shan's cousin probably didn't hurt either, Shan took advantage of the opportunity to become a member of Marl's Juice Crew All-Stars. After several singles (including the old-school classic "The Bridge"), his 1987 album debut Down By Law established a b-boy persona over tracks produced by his cousin. The same held for the 1988 follow-up, Born to Be Wild; on 1990's Play It Again, Shan, he opted for a more mature outlook and a new producer, but it proved to be his final effort. Though he moved into production work, he made a return on "Da Bridge 2001," from Queensbridge's Finest, a 2000 LP released by Nas. ~ Steve Huey, All Music Guide  (mn-ms)
1968  The first Miss Black America, Sandra Williams, is crowned.
1972  The Ann Arbor Blues and Jazz Festival dedicated to the memory of R&B pianist Otis Spann takes place who had died in 1970 aged 30. Over 15,000 people attended the festival. (mn-jt)
1981  Roy Wilkins, executive director of the NAACP, dies. One of the most influential of civil rights activists and a steady voice for non-violence, Wilkins served a director of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People from 1955 to 1977. At the time of his death he was the last survivor of the civil rights leaders of the 1950s and 1960s, having outlived Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, Malcolm X, and A. Philip Randolph. (mn-jc-ss-tr-iokts)
2016 Pince Buster dies. Born Cecil Bustamente Campbell OD (24 May 1938 – 8 September 2016), known professionally as Prince Buster, was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and producer. He was regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of ska and rocksteady music. The records he released in the 1960s influenced and shaped the course of Jamaican contemporary music and created a legacy of work that later reggae and ska artists would draw upon (wiki)

9th. SEPTEMBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN 110: EDWARD W. BROOKE (1919-    ) 
1806  Sarah H. Mapps Douglass, abolitionist, born. Understanding the past is often key to changing the present. After 165 years the legacy of Sarah Mapps Douglass, African American scholar, educator, abolitionist, artist and faithful attender of Quaker meeting has much to say to Friends in the 21st century, especially those concerned with racism and the lack of racial diversity within the Religious Society of Friends. In the foreword Vanessa Julye places the lessons from Sarah Mapps Douglass' life in a vivid and painful contemporary context. In the biography that follows Margaret Hope Bacon explores Sarah's life.  (tr-iokts)
1915  Dr. Carter G. Woodson founds the association for the study of Negro Life and History.
1927  Elvin Jones, jazz drummer, born in Pontiac, Michigan, USA. Elvin Jones already was taking jazz drumming to new dimensions when he arrived in New York in the 1950s. By the time he joined the John Coltrane quartet in 1960, Jones had developed an explosive style that would transform jazz and prefigure advances in fusion, rock and funk. After leaving Coltrane in 1966, Jones went on to lead a number of outstanding groups. Versions of his 'Jazz Machine' have included New Orleans stalwarts Nicholas Payton, Greg Tardy and Delfeayo Marsalis. Jones died May 18/2004 of heart failure after a long illness. He was 76 (mn-cl)
1934  Sonia Sanchez born. Sonia is a prolific writer, serious, and original. Her poems depict the struggles between black people and white people, between men and women, and between cultures. She is innovative in her use of language and structure, sometimes using Black speech in her poetry. She too has a brilliant sense of history, and a vision of her people being truly free. "right on: white america" is one of her best poems. America, she writes, was once 'a pio/neer land', but it had systematically eliminated through intolerance all those that it saw different. Thus, "there ain't ./no mo/ indians', 'no mo real/white allamerican/bad/guys. The only ones left now are the black people and they had better 'check out', for the guns and shells are falling to decimate them and a bleak future awaits them unless they do something about it. (tr-bl)
1944  Tommy Tate soul singer born in Homestead, Florida, USA. Tate is a consistent, if unspectacular, Southern soul wailer. He debuted on Rise in 1964, and continued recording for Okeh, Verve, and Big Ten before joining the Nightingales at Stax in 1970. He returned to the solo scene a couple of years later, recording for Koko. He had a Top 30 R&B single with "School of Love" in 1972, and it has been his only substantial hit. But Tate has kept plugging, working in Mississippi clubs and recording for Juana, Sundance, and other independents. His most recent release was Love Me Now for Ichiban's subsidiary label Urgent in 1992.  (Ron Wynn-mn-rt)
1945  Dee Dee Sharp soul singer, born Dione LaRue in Philadelphia, USA. R&B singer who began her career recording back-up vocals in 1961 for Cameo. In 1962 she began a string of very successful Hot 100 Top 10 hits: "Slow Twistin'" (with Chubby Checker) (#3), "Mashed Potato Time" (#2), "Gravy (For My Mashed Potatoes)" (#9), "Ride!" (#5) and "Do the Bird" (#10). In 1967 she married record producer Kenny Gamble and has since recorded under the name Dee Dee Sharp-Gamble. She had a brief career resurgence during the disco era: as a member of the Philadelphia International All Stars (which also included Lou Rawls, Billy Paul, Teddy Pendergrass, The O'Jays and Archie Bell) she had a minor hit with "Let's Clean Up the Ghetto." In 1981 she spent four weeks at #1 on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart with "Breaking and Entering" / "Easy Money," from her album Dee Dee. (mn-wickpedia)
1941  Otis Redding, dubbed 'The King of Soul Music' born in Dawson, Georgia, USA. Son of a Baptist minister, he assimilated gospel music during his childhood and soon became interested in jump blues and R&B. After resettling in Macon, he became infatuated with local luminary Little Richard, and began singing on a full-time basis. Dies just as his career was taking off. Biggest hit Sitting On The Dock Of The Bay was posthumously. (d.10/12/68 in plane crash). (mn-cl)
1942  Luther Simmons Jr., singer with Main Ingredient born. The Main Ingredient toiled in obscurity for the better part of the '60s before making it big as a sweet, romantic soul outfit with a particular flair for ballads. Paced by the impassioned lead vocals of Cuba Gooding during their prime hitmaking years, the Ingredient is best remembered for their 1972 classic "Everybody Plays the Fool," but released a number of other fine singles, mostly during the first half of the '70s. The group was formed in Harlem in 1964 as a trio called the Poets, composed of lead singer Donald McPherson, Luther Simmons, Jr., and Panama-born Tony Silvester. They made their first recordings for Leiber & Stoller's Red Bird label, but soon changed their name to the Insiders and signed with RCA. After a couple of singles, they changed their name once again in 1966, this time permanently to the Main Ingredient. (mn-jt-mp3.com)
1947  John Roy Lynch, first African American to deliver the keynote address at a Republican National Convention (1864), is born. (tr-iokts)
1958  Race riots broke out in London's Notting Hill Gate. TV crews were  accused of encouraging the rioting. In Victorian times, Notting Hill was a rough working class area and by the 1950s the area had become synonymous with slum landlords and inner city deprivation. In 1958, it was the scene of race riots after problematic relations between the newly arrived black community and continuing harassment from the Teddy Boys of the fascist British Union. A second riot during the famous Notting Hill Carnival of 1976, inspiring the Clash's punk anthem, 'White Riot'. The past 30 years have seen a steady northwards swarm of gentrification, with estate agents coining names like 'Hillgate village' for previously working class neighbourhoods, sending property prices rocketing.  (mn-ttxt-urban75.org)
1985 Handsworth Riots shocked the nation. At approximately 5pm on Monday, a Rastafarian man is arrested near the Acapulco Cafe, Lozells Road for a traffic offence. Very soon a crowd consisting of African Caribbean, Asian and British people ask the police to let the man go - the police refuse this request and the situation quickly escalates into a riot. By 7.30pm The Villa Cross Bingo Hall and Social Club has been firebombed, firemen try and put out the flames, the crowd say "let it burn". Between 8pm and midnight cars are set alight, shops looted, residents are forced to leave their homes. 11.30pm police take back control of Lozells Rd after hours of looting and burning. What is now known as the Handsworth Riots lasted for two days. In the aftermath, well over 1500 police officers were drafted into the area and 50 shops were either burnt or looted. Damage to property was estimated at hundreds of thousands of pounds, 35 people were injured or hospitalised, 2 people unaccounted for and tragically 2 people lost their lives. A total of 7.5 Millions of pounds worth of damage was caused by the rioters. PCRL was permanently on-air calling for calm in the black/Asian community.  It had a knock-on affect all over the city. Most shops felt forced to have roller blinds fitted that now twenty-years later, make the urban shopping erea's look unsightly when the shops are close.  (vist ommgallery.net for Pogus Ceasar's photos)

10th. SEPTEMBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  111: MALCOLM X (1925-1965) 
1925  Roy Brown, R&B singer/pianio player, born, New Orleans, La, USA. (Dies May 25, 1981, Los Angeles, Calif, USA. Born in the Crescent City, Brown grew up all over the place: Eunice, LA (where he sang in church and worked in the sugarcane fields); Houston, TX; and finally Los Angeles by age 17. Back then, Bing Crosby was Brown's favorite singer -- but a nine-month stint at a Shreveport, LA, nightclub exposed him to the blues for the first time. He conjured up "Good Rockin' Tonight" while fronting a band in Galveston, TX. Ironically, Harris wanted no part of the song when Brown first tried to hand it to him. When pianist Cecil Gant heard Brown's knockout rendition of the tune in New Orleans, he had Brown sing it over the phone to a sleepy DeLuxe boss, Jules Braun, in the wee hours of the morning. Though Brown's original waxing (with Bob Ogden's band in support) was a solid hit, Harris' cover beat him out for top chart honors. (mn-rs-mp3.net)
1961  Jomo Kenyatta returns to Kenya from exile, during which he had been elected president of the Kenya National African Union. Born to a Kikuyu peasant family about the year 1897, he was educated at a mission school. He was a Pan-Africanist radical living in Britain in the 30's, Special Branch had files on him! (tr-iokts-pf)
1940  Roy Ayres jazz vibraphone player born in Los Angeles, California. He reached his peak of commercial success during the mid-70s and early 80s. He played piano as a child took an interest in vibes after meeting Lionel Hampton. In high school Ayres' formed his first group, the Latin Lyrics, and in the early 60s began working professionally with flutist/saxophonist Curtis Edward Amy. (mn-cl)
1969  Big Daddy Kane, smooth operator rapper from Brooklyn, real name Antonio Hardy is born today. While he slips in and out of an array of varied styles-romeo, philosopher, street thug-Kane always maintains his image of a forceful black male. In 1988, Billboard named Kane "rap's most important artist" and The New York Times described a performance at Harlem's Apollo Theatre as "meaningful, urgent, and convinced of its authority .. electrifying to the audience." (mn-ms)

11th. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
LEADERS/SPOKESMEN  112: ROBERT C. WEAVER (1907-      ) 
Rankin' Festus, PCRL presenter birthday.     
Nyahbinghi Iladay. Ethiopian New Year. (tr)
1721  Angelo Soliman, African warrior in the Holy Roman Empire, born. Not only the life of Angelo Soliman was exotic. Born in Nigeria and brought to Viennaise society as the first black person he lived in aristocratic comfort with a huge circle of friends. in this small model the coexistence of white and black did work out not only theoretical. some of his "friends" endeavored to persuade soleman to leave his mark after death in the form of his skin for public as racist theories became modern just around that time, he agreed. So he was padded after his death in 1796 and for almost ten years a grotesque exhibit at the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien" before he and his two padded collegues, fürst lobkowitz and fürst liechtenstein, got their final cremation at a fire in 1806. (mn)
1740  The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies is made in the 'Pennsylvania Gazette'. (tr-iokts)
1902  Barbecue Bob, blues guitarist/singer, born, Robert Hicks, Walnut Grove, Ga, USA. Died October 21, 1931, Lithonia, Ga, USA. Barbecue Bob was the name given by Columbia Records talent scout Don Hornsby to Atlanta blues singer Robert Hicks. Hicks is widely credited as being the singer who more than any helped to popularize Atlanta blues in its formative period. Born to a family of sharecroppers in Walnut Grove, GA, Robert Hicks and his brother, Charley "Lincoln" Hicks relocated with them to Newton County. There the Hicks brothers came in contact with Savannah "Dip" Weaver and her son, Curley Weaver. With the Weavers, the Hicks boys learned to play guitar and sing. Another local kid, Eddie Mapp, arrived in the area around 1922 and began to play harmonica with Robert and Charley Hicks and Curley Weaver. For several years in the early to mid-'20s, this group, or some group derived from this nucleus of musicians, would play parties and dances all around Atlanta and the surrounding territory (mn-rs-mp3.net)
1987  Peter Tosh, guitarist and founder member of the seminal reggae group, The Wailers, was murdered by burglars at his home in Jamaica just a month before his 43rd birthday. When he quit the Wailers group in 1973 the prospect of him going solo and giving the free rein to his talent, temperament and commitment to social justice was an exciting one. The speak softly-and-carry-a-big-stick approach favoured by Marley was never going to work for a man such as Tosh. Standing six foot seven inches tall, a martial arts master and given to unreasonable displays of pique* (*wounding of pride). Tosh was a man of direct action. (jt-lb-mn-tr)
2001 Terrorist attacks in America - 2,720 dead, 2,337 injured. The attacks were a series of coordinated attacks carried out against the United States started early on a Tuesday morning. According to the official 9/11 Commission Report, nineteen men affiliated with al-Qaeda, a network of militant Islamist terrorist organizations, hijacked four American airliners. Two were crashed into the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City one into each of the two tallest towers, about 17 minutes apart shortly after which both towers collapsed. The third aircraft crashed into the U.S. Department of Defense headquarters, the Pentagon, in Arlington County, Virginia. The fourth plane crashed into a rural field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania near Shanksville following passenger resistance. The 9/11 Commission reports that these terrorists turned the hijacked planes into the largest suicide bombs in history and the most lethal terrorist acts ever carried out in the United States. The September 11th attacks are arguably the most significant events to have occurred so far in the 21st century in terms of the profound economic, social, cultural and military effects that followed in the United States and many parts of the world. (wickpedia-mn)
2007 Willie 'Tee' [Turbington] dies. He was 63. Willie passed away from colon cancer. His mid-'60s soul sides are acknowledged as classics on the Carolinas' beach music circuit. Willie Tee was playing the piano at the age of three, inspired by his older brother Earl's work with the saxophone and flute. In 1952, the Turbinton family relocated to the city's Calliope Street housing projects. Whilst at school, Willie's music teacher, Harold Battiste, recruited Turbinton to his jazz combo the AFO Band (All for One). With the band, he recorded his 1962 debut single, 'Always Accused'. On leaving AFO, Willie formed the Souls with bassist George Davis and drummer David Lee. Willie signed with the Nola imprint, a new label formed by his cousin, Ulis Gaines, journalist Clint Scott, and producer/arranger Wardell Quezergue. His 1965 Nola debut, 'Teasin' You,' not only became the label's first local hit, but was recorded by blue-eyed soul singers the Righteous Brothers. Atlantic licensed his original for national distribution, flipped by 'Walking up a One-Way Street'. This was followed by 'Thank You John' and 'I Want Somebody (To Show Me the Way Back Home)'. Atlantic then released Tee from his contract, and his next single, 'Please Don't Go,' appeared on Nola's Hot-Line subsidiary. In 1968 Nola folded and Willie co-founded Gatur Records, releasing 'I Peeped Your Hole Card'. In 1969 Willie co-wrote Margie Joseph's 'One More Chance' for the Stax subsidiary Volt. Willie's first-ever LP, 'I'm Only a Man', appeared in 1970 on Capitol, however the Gatur imprint saw a new lease of life, with Willie releasing 'The Man That I Am.' Follow up songs were 'Your Love and My Love Together' and the instrumental 'Swivel Your Hips'. In 1973, Willie was approached to assemble a backing band for a session headlined by the Wild Magnolias. The resulting LP was 1973's 'The Wild Magnolias'. In 1976, Willie Tee signed with United Artists to release his second LP, 'Anticipation'. In the 1980's, he was rediscovered by the DJs on the Northern soul club scene, and in the mid-'90s began travelling, including an appearance at London's Jazz Café in Camden Town. He was also courted by the hip-hop community, with the Gaturs' 'Concentrate' sampled by Sean 'Puffy' Combs and the Wild Magnolias' 'Smoke My Peace Pipe' sampled by the Geto Boys. Willie Tee's classic Nola/Atlantic sides were finally combined in 2002 for the Night Train compilation Teasin' You. (soulwalking)

12th. SEPTEMBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION STARTS  113: WILLIAM SCARBOROUGH (1852-1926) 
National Revolution Day-Ethiopia
1913  Jesse Owens, Track and field star is born in Oakville, Ala., USA. World record-holder Jesse Owens had one qualifying jump left at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. He had fouled on four of his first five tries. And he was angry because Nazi ruler Adolf Hitler, with his misguided notions of Aryan supremacy, had just delivered an insult by departing from the stadium as Owens began his jumps. Suddenly, quietly, his chief rival, German long jumper Luz Long, said to Owens, "...remeasure your steps... take off six inches behind the foul board." Thus was an unlikely friendship born between an African-American and a German. And thus was Jesse Owens inspired to capture an unprecedented four Olympic gold medals with record performances in the long jump, the 100- and 200-meter dashes, and the 400-meter relay. Positive experiences such as the Olympic Games revelation by Luz, seemed to balance the racial-prejudice negatives in Jesse Owens' life as an African American, leading too his moderate ideology and his admiration of the principles and practices of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Owens parlayed his international track-star reputation into jobs helping his people--such as national director of physical education for African-Americans with the Office of Civilian Defense (1940-42), which he called"the most gratifying work I've ever done."" But for all his desire to help others, Jesse Owens was largely a self-made man. A frail,, sickly child, he developed into a strong runner, winning national high school titles inn three events. Dozens of colleges pursued Owens, but he chose to go to Ohio State,, where he had to work his way through school. Owens stunned the nation in 1935 when he set three world records and equaled another in one day, running a 20.3-second 220-yard dash, 22.6 in the 220-yard low hurdles, a record-tying 9.4-second 100 yard dash, and long-jumping 26'-8-1/4... a mark that was not surpassed for 25 years.. And amid all his deserved adulation, Jesse Owens maintained his perspective. "Life,"" he said, "is the real Olympics."  (tr-iokts)
1944  Barry White soul singer/songwriter/producer/keyboards born in Galveston Texas, USA. 14 UK hits between 1973-79 , also 100 gold albums and 40 platinum albums around the world. Dies 2004 (mn)
1958  Gangs Terrorise Negroes. - read the front-page headline on the Paddington Mercury. - Churches ask governments to take action in race clashes. Renewed racial violence in Paddington over the week-end on Saturday rioters battled with scores of police in the Harrow Road. The mobs were angry that their coloured prey had stayed indoors. (mn)
1992  Dr. Mae Jemison is the first black American woman in space. Mae Jemison was born in Decatur, Alabama on October 17, 1956. She was the youngest of three children. The Jemison family moved to Chicago when Mae was three. Mae became interested in science when she was very young. She was an excellent student. By the age of sixteen she had received a scholarship to attend Stanford University. Mae Jemison received a degree in chemical engineering in 1977. She received a Doctor of Medicine degree in 1981. NASA selected Dr. Jemison for astronaut training in 1987. Her first mission was aboard the Shuttle Endeavour in September of 1992. Dr. Jemison was Science Mission Specialist on the flight. When the Endeavour blasted into orbit, Dr. Mae Jemison became the first African-American woman to enter space. Dr. Jemison is an excellent jazz dancer. She is also interested in the theater. Some of her other hobbies are photography, skiing and studying foreign languages. In 1993, Dr. Jemison resigned from NASA. She now works on projects to advance technology in developing countries. She is also a professor at Dartmouth College. She also appered in an episode of Star Trek:The Next Generation. (mn-nasa)
1977  Steve Biko, south African political activist dies in detention (from head injuries) in south Africa. Biko was held in prison for twenty-four days were he was interrogated, starved, and brutally beaten. It wasnt until Biko was laying unconscious, that the doctors suggested that he be transported to Pretoria for medical treatment, 740 miles away. On September 12, 1977, Biko became the forty-first person in South Africa to die while being held in the custody of the South African Police. "Blacks no longer seek to reform the system because so doing implies acceptance of the major points around which the system revolves. Blacks are out to completely transform the system and to make of it what they wish." - STEVE BIKO (mn-drum)
1998  Fay Thompson a Birmingham busness woman raises £744.36p for OSCAR Sickle Cell with a Walkathon.  
2007 Bobby Byrd, singer dies from cancer, aged 73 in Loganville, Georgia, U.S.A. Right-hand man to James Brown on/off for 50 years. Bobby Byrd formed the Gospel Starlighters in the late 50's. He also played in the Gospel group the 3 Swanee's with James Brown and Johnny Terry. Bobby met James in Toccoa, where he was serving time in a juvenile facility for burglary. James pitched for the prison baseball team, and his team played against Mr. Byrd's team. During the early '50s, Bobby and his family sponsored James Brown's parole from prison. Bobby recorded with Earl Nelson as Bob And Earl before forming the group The Avons, a band later to enlist James Brown upon his release from prison. The Avons then changed their name to The Flames, who became James Brown And The Famous Flames during the '60's. Bobby's first hit came for the Smash imprint, a duet with Anna King entitled 'Baby Baby Baby', which made number 52 in Billboard's soul chart in 1964. The following year 'We Are In Love' reached number 14 in the same chart.Bobby later enjoyed a further Top 20 hit, 'I Need Help (I Can't Do It Alone)', for King Records. His voice can later be heard on James Brown's 'Get Up (I Feel Like Being A) Sex Machine.' Bobby's Seventies output was fairly low key, however his career enjoyed a renaissance with the onset of sampling, mainly pioneered by the hip hop artists. The most famous example was Eric B And Rakim's 1987 single 'I Know You Got Soul', which sampled Byrd's 1971 track of the same title.Bobby left the James Brown line up in 1973 and recorded and performed regularly (particularly in Europe). His first studio album since 1970 was released in 1994, entitled 'On The Move'. Bobby embarked on several concert tours with his wife, Vicki Anderson, and the family. As a solo artist Bobby is probably best remembered for the, previously mentioned, James Brown produced, 'I Know You Got Soul' (1971) and 'If You Got A Love You Better Hold On To It' (1972), popular on the U.K. 'rare groove' scene in the mid-'80's. Bobby's daughter Bonnie Byrd scored an R & B hit with the tune 'Good Girl' in the late 1980's. He is also the stepfather of the U.K. based soul singer Carleen Anderson. Bobby sang at James Brown's 2006 funeral along with his wife, Vicki Anderson, who was also in James' touring band. Bobby performed his final show with the Soulpower Allstars in July 2005 at the Supernatural Festival in Holland.Bobby was scheduled to appear at another show on September 29th in Belgrade, Serbia. Following Bobby's passing, Mrs. Vicki Anderson said that of her husband's songs, "Baby, I Love You" was her favorite.'That was the first song that he wrote for me,' said Vicki. (soulwalking)

13th. SEPTEMBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  114: WILLIAM J. SIMMONS (1849-1890)
1886  Alain Le Roy Locke, philosopher and Rhodes scholar, born in Philadelphia, Pa. Locke was an influential teacher, editor, and writer and the first Africa-American to attend Oxford University as Rhodes Scholar (B.Litt.,1910). After studying at the University of Berlin he took up a teaching post at Howard University in 1912. He remained there until his death. (mn-ss)
1898  Black Invention: Cap for bottles and jars, patented by A.E. Longand and A.A. Jones. (sc)
1922  Charles Brown, blues singer, born Texas City, Texas, USA. How many blues artists remained at the absolute top of their game after more than a half-century of performing? One immediately leaps to mind: Charles Brown. His incredible piano skills and laid-back vocal delivery remained every bit as mesmerizing at the end of his life as they were way back in 1945, when his groundbreaking waxing of "Drifting Blues" with guitarist Johnny Moore's Three Blazers invented an entirely new blues genre for sophisticated postwar revelers: an ultra-mellow, jazz-inflected sound perfect for sipping a late-night libation in some hip after-hours joint. Brown's smooth trio format was tremendously influential to a host of high-profile disciples Ray Charles, Amos Milburn, and Floyd Dixon, for starters. (mn-rs)
1940  Jimmy James, reggae/soul artiste born Michael James in the USA, but raised in Jamaica. He started performing American soul music in the late '50s. As a solo artist he notched two number one records in Jamaica as Jimmy James on Tip Top Records: "Bewildered and Blue," and "Come to Me Softly" (the latter reached number 70 in States). After the two solo smashes, one of Jamaica's most popular bands, the Vagabonds, approached him; they needed a lead singer and Jimmy was hot. James agreed to work with the band, and Jimmy James & the Vagabonds formed in 1960. They found steady work at the Marquee Club in London, where the British clamored to hear their bag of American soul music. The Northern soul boom was still seeding, and American soul singers rarely came to England, so Jimmy James & the Vagabonds filled a void. (mn-cl-ah)
1956  Joni Sledge soul singer with Sister Sledge born in Philadelphia. The girls had a run of hits between 1977-79 produced by Niles Rogers and Bernard Edwards of the group Chic. (mn-jt)
1984  Titus Turner, soul singer & writer dies. Born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1933.  Made his first records for Okeh in 1951, his first big success came in 1955 when Little Willie John had a Top 10 R&B hit with the Turner composition All Around The World; the song was revived as Grits Ain't Groceries by Little Milton in 1969. (mn-cl)
1997  Footballer Ian Wright receives a Carling N0.1 award after a week when he breaks the hat-trick record by scoring 5 goals in 7 days, also            breaking the 178 goals record. (mn)
14th. SEPTEMBER     
BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  115: BOOKER T. WASHINGTON (1856-1915)
1912  Archibald, a.k.a Archie Boy, blues piano player, born Leon Gross, New Orleans, USA. (Died January 8, 1973, New Orleans). (mn-sr)
1921  Constance Baker Motley, former U.S. Cabinet member, born in New Haven, Connecticut. She attended Fisk University but in 1942 transferred to NYU's Washington Square College where she earned a bachelors degree in economics.  She attended Columbia Law School, graduating in 1946. Following graduation from Columbia, Constance Baker began her legal career working for the chief counsel for the NAACP's Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Thurgood Marshall, in the New York office. She married Joel Wilson Motley in 1949. From her position with the NAACP LDF, where she eventually became the LDF's Associate Counsel (LDF's principal trial attorney), Motley participated in most of the important Civil Rights cases from 1945 to 1965, including Brown v. Board of Education and the case of Meredith v. Fair, 298 F.2d 696 (5th Cir. 1962) in which she was lead counsel for James Meredith in forcing integration of the University of Mississippi. Motley pursued a short political career, becoming in 1964, the first African-American woman elected to the New York State Senate. In 1966 she became the first African-American woman to be a federal judge when President Johnson appointed her to the federal district court for the Southern District Court of New York. She was appointed chief judge of the SDNY in 1982, and in 1986 took the status of senior judge. (mn)
1924  Davidson Nicol, doctor/diplomat and scholar is born. He attends Christ's collage in Cambridge and was well known for his work on insulin Nicol gained MD in 1956 and PhD in 1958 and died 20.09.94.
1955  Richard Penniman, better known as Little Richard, completed his first two-day recording session for Hollywood-based Specialty Records recording songs like Tootie Frutti; Long Tall Sally. (mn-jt)
1983  [Amy Jade Winehouse] born, she is an English soul, jazz, and R&B singer and songwriter. Winehouse's debut album, Frank (released in 2003) was nominated for the Mercury Prize. Her 2006 album Back to Black led to six Grammy Award nominations including the "Big Four": Best New Artist, Album of the Year, Record of the Year and Song of the Year. On 14 February 2007, she won a BRIT Award for Best British Female Artist; she had also been nominated for Best British Album. She has won the Ivor Novello Award twice, among other prestigious distinctions. Winehouse has created media buzz apart from her singing. Her unique style, most notably her former signature beehive hairstyle, has spawned imitators and been the muse for fashion designers, most notably Karl Lagerfeld. The singer's (and her husband's) struggle with drug and alcohol addiction, as well as self-destructive behaviour, became regular tabloid news in 2007. They have also been plagued by legal troubles that have led to the cancellation of several tour dates. Dies 23rd July, 2011. (wikipedia)
1991  The South African government, A.N.C. and The Inkhata Freedom Party signed a peace accord to end factional violence in the townships.(mn)
1997  Athlete Carl Lewis retires after 20 years in sport. Born Fredrick Calton in 1961, known for several years as the fastest man in the world for his records in the 100-meter dash - his personal best came in 1991 with 9.86 seconds - Lewis had won attention while still a student at Houston University. In 1984, at the Los Angeles Olympics, Lewis became the first athlete since Jesse Owens to win four gold medals in one Olympics. Considered as the finest track and field athletes of all time. (mn-ss)

15th. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  116: WILLIAM EDWARD DU BOIS
1928  Cannonball Adderly, jazz man born Julian Edwin Adderly in Tampa, Florida, USA. (Died August 1, 1975). He was one of the great saxophonists of his generation. His fiery, blues-soaked interpretations of Charlie Parker's alto legacy brought jazz to many people hitherto untouched by it. (mn-jt)
1943  Paul Robeson in 296th performance of "Othello" at Shubert Theatre.
1956  Jaki Grayam soul singer born in Birmingham, England. Jacki sang at school before taking a secretarial position. In the evenings she continued her singing in a band called Ferrari before moving to the Medium Wave Band. She was spotted there by Rian Freshwater, who managed David Grant (ex-Lynx) and singer/producer Derrick Bramble formerly of Heatwave who became her producer and songwriter. She signed to EMI, who released her debut 45 What's The Name Of Your Game (1984). Best remembered for hits Set Me Free and Mated. (mn-cl-jt)
1963  Four African American schoolgirls are killed in a bombing at Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ali., USA. (tr-iokts)
1983  Willie Bobo percussionist/singer dies. Born William Correa in New York's Spanish Harlem, he recorded with Count Bassie, Tito Puente and Cal Tjader. He was a pioneer of Latin jazz-fusion.  (mn-jt-rt)
2008 [Jerry Wexler] producer dies. b. Gerald 'Jerry' Wexler, 10th January 1917, New York City, New York State, U.S.A. d. 15th August 2008, Sarasota, Florida, U.S.A. Music producer, Jerry Wexler, has died at his home in Siesta Key, Florida, 15th August 2008, at the age of 91, from congestive heart failure. His life support machine had been turned off after his family were consulted. (soulwalkin.co.uk)
>>> Arrow - 'Special Soca Rumba' Uploaded by mickeynold. - Watch more music videos, in HD!2010. Arrow dies. b. Alphonsus Celestine Edmund Cassell, 16th November 1949, Montserrat, West Indies. d. 15th September 2010, Montserrat, West Indies. He suffered with complications from brain cancer. Arrow recorded 'Hot, Hot, Hot' and 'Dance With Me, Woman'. Worked with his brother, Justin Cassell. The man often credited with taking soca global, Arrow, has died after fighting cancer for some time. Outside the Caribbean, many know soca music, a fast-paced cousin of calypso, through Arrows biggest hit Hot, Hot, Hot, recorded in 1982. Sixty-year-old Arrow, whose real name is Alphonsus Edmund Cassell, had been fighting brain cancer for over a year and had been back and forth for treatment in the US. However, upon returning home to his native Montserrat, he fell ill recently with pneumonia and was hospitalised in neighbouring Antigua. Arrow was known locally as a businessman as well as an international soca star. He set up his own record label in 1973 and ran a shop on the remaining habitable part of Montserrat after the volcano destroyed large parts of the island. His song Hot, Hot, Hot became the biggest selling soca hit of all time. Arrow had always stated how much he loved calypso, the precursor for soca music. And he had named himself Arrow in honour of calypso veteran Sparrow. Born and raised in Montserrat, Arrow grew up in a musical family where both his older brothers had been Calypso Kings of Montserrat, Hero, Justin Cassell and Young Challenger, Lorenzo Castell. He first performed at age 10 at a concert at the Montserrat Secondary School. He started singing calypso in 1967 taking the junior monarch title and four times the Monserrat crown. (soulwalking/bbc)

16th. SEPTEMBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:   117: ARTHUR SCHOMBURG (1874-1938)
1889  Claude A. Barnett  the founder of the Associated Negro Press born in Stanford, Florida, USA. Founded the Associated Negro Press (ANP) in March 1919 and remained director during a time of great social change, retiring in 1964. After his retirement the ANP ceased to exist. The ANP provided information of interest to black readers including news, opinion columns, reviews of books, movies, and records as a wire service to black newspapers. In addition to his work with the ANP, Barnett served as special assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, participated in Republican Party Campaigns, the National Negro Business League, and the United Negro College Fund. In addition, he served on the boards of the Tuskegee Institute, American National Red Cross, Provident Hospital, and other organizations. In 1934 he married the well-known concert singer and actress, Etta Moten.  (mn)
1925  B.B. King, blues guitarist/singer born Riley B. King in Indianola, Miss., USA. Since the late 1960s, when rock and pop audiences discovered him and his refined, majestic brand of blues, guitarist and singer B.B. King has been the music's most successful concert artist and it's most consistently recognized ambassador. He single-handedly brought blues from the fringe of the music spectrum into the mainstream. (mn-rs)
1926  Fred Below, respected and most in-demand blues drummer in the 50s, born, Chicago, Ill, USA. He created one of the music's most often            heard backbeats. He attended DuSable high School, famous for number of jazz musicians that had been students there, and later the Roy C. Knack School Percussion. Influenced by Gene Krupa, Chick Webb, and Buddy Rich, Below began his career as a jazz drummer. (Died 13/8/88,Chicago, Ill, USA). (mn-rs)
1935  Billy Boy Arnold, journeyman harp player, born in Chicago, Ill, USA. A disciple Of JOHN LEE "SONNY BOY" WILLIAMSON, Billy Boy Arnold is a journeyman harp player and vocalist whose best recordings were made for Vee Jay Records in the mid 1950s. As a youth, Arnold copiously imitated Williamson's harp style. Later, however, after also being influenced By LITTLE  WALTER and JUNIOR WELLS. Arnold developed Score of original harp sounds, Although he never really strayed too far from his Sonny Boy roots. (mn-rs)
1946  Pauline Henriques and Connie Smith become the first black actresses to appear on British television when they acted in All God's Chillun Got Wings, Eugene O'Neills controversial American stage drama about mixed marriage. ven before its May 1924 premiere, the play made headlines. Reporting that a white actress would appear alongside a black actor -- and that she would kiss his hand --newspapers warned of race riots. Love between people of different races was taboo in 1920s America. Dozens of states prohibited interracial marriage and enforced racial discrimination with harsh Jim Crow laws, and the Ku Klux Klan was on the rise in the South. Over four decades would pass before the Supreme Court would rule that state laws against interracial marriages were unconstitutional. Those who objected to what they heard about O'Neill's new drama flooded the Provincetown Players with threats and letters of protest. Sensationalist newspapers like the New York American reported that the Mayor's office might stop the production for fear of "race strife". But the city couldn't force a cancellation in a subscription theater, which was a private club. O'Neill defended his play, asking people to read it and not the newspapers. He also published an article by the well-known black intellectual, W.E.B. Du Bois; the full text of the Negro spiritual that he used for the play's title; and a poem by one of the leading lights of the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes, among other things, in the playbill. Despite the newspapers' predictions, the play ran without incident. Critics gave it mostly lukewarm reviews.  (mn-sb)
1953  Earl Klugh, jazz guitar player born in Detroit, Earl picked up his first guitar at the age three. When he was seventeen he left home to tour with George Benson, eventually leaving to join Chick Corea's Return For Forever. He began his solo career with Blue Note Records in the mid '70s, early albums being Living Inside Your Love (1976), including 'I Heard It Through The Grapevine', and the Grusin/Rosen produced Finger Paintings (1977). Switching to United Artists, Earl scored with three jazz funk albums during 1980, Dream Come True, One On 0ne with Bob James (for Tappan Zee Records) and the soundtrack How To Beat and The High Cost Of Living with Hubert Laws (for CBS). In 1983 he returned with a further soundtrack for Capitol, where he also delivered Wishful Thinking (1984), Key Notes (1985) and Two Of A Kind with Bob James (1985). In 1985 he switched to Warner Brothers where his albums have included Soda Fountain Shuffle (1985), Life Stories (1986), Collaboration with George Benson (1987), and Midnight ln Sac Juan (1991). (mn-jt)
1956  Charles Fearing, soul group member of Raydio born. Instigated by Ray Parker Jr., in 1977, Raydio featured the vocals of Arnell Carmichael and Jerry Knight on the group's 1978 UK hits 'Jack And Jill' (Top 20)and 'ls This love Thing' (Top 30) through to 'Two Places At The Time' in 1980, all for the Arista label. In 1981 Ray Parker decided to sing lead vocals himself, and, remaining with Arista, dissolved Raydio to record under his own name. (mn-jt)
1958  Rodney Franklin, jazz/soul keyboard player born in Berkeley, California, in 1958. Rodney was taking jazz piano lessons by the age of six at Washington Elementary School. His Administrator at the school was Dr Herb Wong, a noted jazz journalist, DJ and teacher. Prior to signing with CBS in 1978, Rodney worked extensively with John Handy in San Francisco, and toured with Bill Summers, Freddie Hubbard and Marlena Shaw. His debut CBS album was In The Centre (1978), an Underground jazz fusion album (not released in the UK) featuring 'On The Path' and 'Like The Music Make It Hot' (with Freddie Hubbard). 1980's You'll Never Know saw some major chart success with 'The Groove' (UK 10), even creating a brief UK dance craze 'The Freeze' (instigated by disc Jockey Chris Hill) His other albums were Rodney Franklin (1980), Endless Flight (1981), Learning To Love (1982), Marathon (1984), produced by Stanley Clarke, Skydance (1985) and It Takes Two (1986). In 1988 he switched to BMG for Diamond Inside Of You which featured lead vocals by Jennifer Holliday on the single 'Gotta Give It Up'. (mn-jt-rt)
1975  Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia - Independence Day - Papua, New Guinea.
2008 Norman Whitfield producer dies. b. Norman Jesse Whitfield, 12th May 1941, Harlem, New York, New York City, U.S.A. d. 16th September 2008, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, U.S.A. Norman Whitfield, the songwriter and producer, musically way ahead of his time, has died on Tuesday the 16th of September at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. He was 67. Norman had struggled for months with complications from diabetes. Additionally he had recently emerged from a coma. Janie Bradford and Detroit producer Clay McMurray were among the many friends and Motown alumni monitoring his health up until his passing. Clay McMurray spoke with Whitfield by phone last week. Clay had said he felt Norman was recently 'fighting back' from his ill health. As Motown went through changes in styles towards the latter years of the 1960's, Norman Whitfield moved the Motown Sound into an undiscovered territory, incorporating rock, psychedelic sounds and pulsating rhythms within his work. He was instrumental in moving the Temptations away from the sweet soul sounds of the mid Sixties, giving the lyrical content an enironmental and political dimension. Along with Barrett Strong (who is also in a Detroit hospital recovering from a stroke) the pair penned many of the Motown melodies that are today seen as pop standards, perhaps most notably, 'I Heard it Through the Grapevine', recorded by Marvin Gaye and Gladys Knight & the Pips seperately.  Norman's post-Motown years included the 1977 soundtrack to the movie 'Car Wash' which featured the band Rose Royce. (soulwalking.co.uk)

17th. SEPTEMBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  118: ALIAN L. LOCKE (1886-1954)
1878  Black Invention: printing press, W.A. Lavette receives patent.
1979  Andrew "Rube" Foster, father of Negro leagues baseball, is born in Galveston, Texas, USA. (tr-iokts)
1940  Lamonte McLemore, soul singer with The Fifth Dimension is born. The Fifth Dimension's unique sound lay somewhere between smooth, elegant soul and straightforward, adult-oriented pop, often with a distinct flower-power vibe. Although they appealed more to mainstream listeners than to a hip, hardcore R&B audience, they had a definite ear for contemporary trends; their selection of material helped kickstart the notable songwriting careers of Jimmy Webb and Laura Nyro, and their biggest hit was a medley from the hippie musical Hair, "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In." (mn-jt-sh)
1968  Lord Jamar, rapper from New Rochelle, New York, USA, raps with Brand Nubian, born. Brand Nubian was formed in 1989 in the New York suburb of New Rochelle. Grand Puba (born Maxwell Dixon) had previously recorded with a group called Masters of Ceremony, and was joined by Sadat X (born Derek Murphy, originally dubbed Derek X), Lord Jamar (born Lorenzo DeChalus), and DJ Alamo (Murphy's cousin). The group signed with Elektra and released their debut album, All for One, in 1990. Most reviews were glowing, but the stronger rhetoric on the album especially the track "Drop the Bomb" drew fire from some quarters, including some white Elektra employees reluctant to promote what they saw as reverse racism. Ultimately, the uproar didn't really hurt Brand Nubian's career, but neither did it produce a wider hit with pop or R&B audiences, despite the high regard in which the singles "All for One," "Slow Down," and "Wake Up" are held. A far more serious blow was Grand Puba's departure from the group in late 1991, owing to tensions that had arisen over his handling the lion's share of the rapping. Not only did Brand Nubian lose their clear focal point and chief producer, they also lost DJ Alamo, who elected to continue working with Puba. (mn-ms)
1970  Vinnie, 'hard pop rapper' with Naughty By Nature, real name Vincent Brown, from New Jersey, USA, born today. The group was formed in East Orange, NJ, in 1986, while all three members MCs Treach (born Anthony Criss) and Vinnie (born Vincent Brown), and DJ Kay Gee (born Keir Gist) were attending the same high school. Initially called New Style, they began performing at talent shows and were discovered by Queen Latifah a few years later; she signed the group to her management company and helped them land a deal with Tommy Boy Records. Naughty By Nature's self-titled debut was released in 1991 and produced an inescapable Top Ten hit in "O.P.P." (which supposedly stood for "other people's property," though a close listen to the lyrics revealed that the second P represented male or female genitals). "O.P.P." made Naughty By Nature crossover stars, yet their ghetto sensibility and gritty street funk (not to mention Treach's nimble rhyming technique) made them popular in the hip-hop underground as well. Treach began a secondary acting career in 1992, appearing in Juice; he would go on to supporting roles in The Meteor Man, Who's the Man?, and Jason's Lyric, among others. (mn-ms)
1977  Supremes Top UK Chart with Oldies Album. The album contained 12, N0.1 singles and remained on the chart for 7 weeks. (mn-jt)
1983  Vanessa Williams, Miss New York, becomes first black Miss America in Atlanta City pageant. A mother of three and an actress as well as a  singer, she has come a long way since becoming embroiled in a minor scandal over her appearance in Penthouse magazine. Four years later she signs a recording contract with Wing Records. (mn)
1990  Natalie Cole, soul singer marries record producer Andre Fisher. (mn-jt)

18th. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  119: CARTER G. WOODSON (1875-1950) 
1951  Dr. Benjamin Solomon Carson Sr., neurosurgeon, is born in Detroit, Mitc., USA. Ben Carson  is a renowned American neurosurgeon. He is said to be one of the first and youngest in the nation at the age of 32 to become the Director of Pediatrics Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He is an inspiration to black children growing up with single parentage all over the world. In 1987 Carson came to media attention when he separated conjoined twins who were joined at the head and shared part of the same brain.  Dr. Carson is a recipient of numerous honors and awards including more than 20 honorary doctorate degrees. He is a member of the American Academy of Achievement, the Horatio Alger Society of Distinguished Americans, the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, and many other prestigious organizations. Dr. Carson was appointed to the President's Council on Bioethics by President George W. Bush in 2004. He has written three books: Gifted Hands, Think Big and The Big Picture. Dr. Carson has been married to Candy Carson for twenty-five years and has three sons.  (tr-iokts-wickpedia)
1958  James Brown record's classic song Try Me (I need you) at Beltone Studios, New York, NY, USA. It reaches N0.1 on the R&B chart. (mn)
1962  John Fashanu, football player born in Kensington, England. Played for Aston Villa; Wimbledon; Millwall; Lincoln City; Crystal Palace and Norwich. League Appearances 33. (tr)
1970  Jimi Hendrix dies after he inhaled his own vomit at a time when it was presumed he was under the influence of drugs or alcohol or both. He died at his girlfriend's flat, Monika Danneman, London, England. The news stuns the world. Although he will be remembered as rock's most innovative and revolutionary guitarist, he had the natural instincts of a bluesman and in fact built much of his early repertoire from the blues. Some of what he did with feedback, fuzz tones, distortion, and volume elaborated on the styles of blues guitarists Pat Hare and Guitar Slim. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall Of Fame in 1992. (mn-jt)
1980  Cosmonaut Arnoldo Tamayo, a cuban, becomes the first black sent on a space mission in space. Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez (born January 29, 1942) was the first Cuban cosmonaut and the first person from an American country other than the USA to travel in space. Born in Guantánamo, Tamayo graduated from the Air Force Academy and became a pilot in the Cuban Air Defence Force. He was selected as part of the seventh international programme for Intercosmos on March 1, 1978. His backup cosmonaut was fellow Cuban José López Falcón. Tamayo, along with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko, was launched into space as part of the Soyuz 38 from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 18, 1980, at 19:11 UTC). After docking with Salyut 6, Tamayo and Romanenko conducted experiments in an attempt to find what caused space sickness, and perhaps even find a cure. After 124 orbits and 7 days, 20 hours and 43 minutes, Tamayo and Romanenko landed 180 km from Dzheskasgan. The landing was risky, as it was in darkness. Following his career as a cosmonaut, Tamayo was made director of the Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. Tamayo is married to Maria Lobaina and has two sons, Orlando (born 1968) and Arnaldo (born 1970). To date he has not been honoured with induction into the International Space Hall of Fame.
1992  Earl Van Dyke, session keyboard player with Motown records between 1961-71 dies. (1929-1992.) In 1964 he replaced Choker Champbell as leader of Motown's studio house band. The new group, affectionately dubbed the Funk Brothers, also included James Jammerson (bass) and Benny Benjamin (drums), but was known as the Earl Van Dyke Six when touring in support of the label's vocal acts. (mn-cl)
2008 Pervis Jackson dies. b. Pervis Angelo Jackson, 17th May 1938, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. d. 18th August 2008, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. The bass vocalist with The Detroit Spinners, Pervis Jackson, has died. He was 70. Pervis had been suffering from cancer. Pervis' widow, Claudreen Jackson said her husband, died about 2 a.m. on Monday at Sinai-Grace. She said the 70-year-old bass singer had been diagnosed two days previously with brain and liver cancer. The doctors found tumors late in July, but were unsure at the time if they were malignant. Pervis formed the bass vocal foundation for the Detroit based group. He was, additionally, one of the original members of the group. His vocals can be distinctively heard on the Spinners tune 'Games People Play', with Pervis singing the line '12:45'. Pervis last performed with other members of the group during July in California. (soulwalking.co.uk)

19th. SEPTEMBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION: 120: CHARLES S. JOHNSON (1893-1956)
1881  Tuskegee Institute opened by Booker T. Washington in Alabama.
1887  Lovie Austin, bandleader/session musician/composer, born Cora Calhoun, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. One of the first important female bandleaders in jazz, Lovie Austin deserves to be much better known. After studying music in college, she toured on the vaudeville circuit, settling in Chicago in 1923. During 1924-1926, she recorded frequently with her Blues Serenaders, a group that at various times had Tommy Ladnier, Bob Shoffner, Natty Dominique, or Shirley Clay on cornet; Kid Ory or Albert Wynn on trombone; and Jimmy O'Bryant or Johnny Dodds on clarinet, along with banjo and occasional drums. Fortunately, a Classics CD has collected all of those recordings. Austin (as house pianist for Paramount) also backed many blues singers (including Ida Cox, Ma Rainey, and Alberta Hunter). But after 1926, her recording activity largely came to a halt. Austin worked for 20 years as the musical director for the Monogram Theatre and later on as a pianist at a dancing school, only returning to record in 1961 as part of Riverside's Living Legends series. Although mostly an ensemble pianist, Lovie Austin was a skilled arranger. (Died July 10, 1972, Chicago). (mn-sr-sy)
1893  Black Invention: Electric Railway Trolly, Elbert R. Robinson. (sc)
1921  Billy Ward, soul singer, and early member of the Drifters born in Los Angeles, California, USA. (mn)
1931  Brook Benton soul/pop singer born Benjamin Franklin Peay in Camden, South Carolina, USA. Benton crashed the top spot on the R&B charts in early 1959 with his moving "It's Just a Matter of Time," then rapidly encored with three more R&B chart-toppers: "Thank You Pretty Baby," "So Many Ways," and "Kiddio." Pairing with Mercury labelmate Dinah Washington, their delightful repartee on "Baby (You've Got What It Takes)" and "A Rockin' Good Way" paced the R&B lists in 1960. The early '60s were a prolific period for Benton, but he left Mercury a few years later and bounced between labels before reemerging with the atmospheric Tony Joe White ballad "Rainy Night in Georgia" on Cotillion in 1970. Benton later made a halfhearted attempt to cash in on the disco craze, but his hitmaking reign was at an end long before his death in 1988. (allmusic)
1945  Freda Payne, soul singer born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Best remembered for her 1970  No.1 hit 'Band of Gold'. Her anti-Vietnam song 'Bring the Boys Home' was a million seller. Her sister Sherrie Payne sang with the 1970's Supremes/Glass House. (mn)
1952  Nile Rogers guitarist/producer with the group Chic born today in New  York City, USA. Nile Rodgers' contribution to popular music has been extremely significant, whether it be penning some of the most influential and popular songs of the disco era with Chic, or producing countless hits for a wide variety of other artists. Born September 19, 1952 in New York, New York, it was clear that Rodgers possessed exceptional musical talent early on, and by the age of 19, was playing guitar as part of the house band for the world famous Apollo Theatre (playing alongside the likes of Aretha Franklin, Funkadelic, etc.). Rodgers soon grew tired of his status as a backup musician, however, and sought to put together a band of his own. (mn)
1960  Top 100 Trio by Twister. Hank Ballard & Midnighters became the first group with three singles in the chart simultaneously (let's go, let's go, let's go, Finger Poppin' time and 'the twist'). (mn-jt)
1961  Referendum on Federation held. Jamaica votes to withdraw. (mn-cb)
1983  St. Kits & Nevis gains Independence. Saint Kitts was originally settled by the French in 1627, while the British took Nevis a year later. Over 150 year later, both islands came under British control but it took another hundred years for Saint Kitts and Nevis to gain their independence (1983). The economy of the islands rests heavily on sugar products, an industry that was hurt by 1990's Hurricane Hugo. There has been some dissension between the islands as Nevis began to agitate for separation from Saint Kitts over the issue of taxes but a 1998 referendum failed to settle the issue conclusively. (jc-mn)
1989  Gordon Parks's film 'The Learning Tree' is among the first films to be registered by the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress. (tr-iokts)
2005 Willie Hutch, soul singer/producer dies. Legendary Motown veteran who co-wrote Ill Be There for the Jackson 5, has died at his home in Dallas, Texas, reports WREG-TV Memphis.  He was 59. The cause of death has not yet been released. Born Willie McKinley Hutchinson in 1946 in Los Angeles, Hutch grew up in Dallas, where his debut single Love Has Put Me Down was released in the early sixties. After putting out his first album in 1964, the artist went on to work with a number of artists as a writer and producer. In 1970, producer Hal Davis called Hutch at the 11th hour to write a song for a backing track he had produced for the Jackson 5. The Michael Jackson-led group reportedly went into the studio the next day to record Hutchs words on the track, which turned out to be one of the groups biggest hits, Ill Be There.   Hutch went on to write and/or produce solo albums for Jackson, as well as Smokey Robinson, The Fifth Dimension, The Miracles, The Main Ingredient (California My Way), Junior Walker, Diana Ross and Marvin Gaye, among others. He also wrote the entire soundtrack for Pam Griers 1970s blaxploitation masterpiece, "Foxy Brown" and worked on the soundtrack to The Mack, including the song, Brother's Gonna Work It Out. Hutch even penned a song for the 2005 John Singleton-produced film, "Hustle and Flow."   Willie released two albums in the 90s: From The Heart and The Mack Is Back. (eurweb)
2008 Earl Palmer session drummer dies. b. 25th October 1924, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. d. 19th September 2008, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Session drummer, Earl Palmer, has passed away in Los Angeles, California, at the age of 83. Earl played on many Rock and Soul classics, including Little Richard's 'Tutti Frutti' and The Righteous Brothers' 'You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'.' He passed away  at his Los Angeles home after fighting a lengthy illness. Born in New Orleans in 1924, to a mother who was a vaudevillian, Earl was learning rhythmic patterns as a tap dancer at age four. He later moved to Los Angeles, and worked mainly in both cities, recording with some of the music world's all-time greats on a huge number of songs. Earl drummed on Ike and Tina Turner's 'River Deep, Mountain High,' Fats Domino's 'The Fat Man' and 'I Hear You Knockin' by Smiley Lewis. From his Los Angeles home, Palmer drummed for music producer Phil Spector and Motown. His list of session credits includes artists as diverse as Ritchie Valens, Eddie Cochran, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Duane Eddy, Frank Sinatra, the Monkees, Bonnie Raitt, Johnny Otis, Neil Young and Elvis Costello. Earl Palmer was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. According to the institution's Web site, Little Richard wrote in his autobiography that Palmer 'is probably the greatest session drummer of all time.' He married four times and is survived by his seven children. (soulwalking.co.uk)

20th. SEPTEMBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:   121: MORDECAI JOHNSON (1890-1976) 
1664  Maryland (USA) passed the first Anti amalgamation law. This law was intended to prevent marriages between Black men and English women. The Governor of the state at the time was Sir William Berkeley. Interracial marriage was a fairly common practice during the colonial era among white indentured servants and black slaves as well as in more aristocratic circles. Subsequently, similar laws were passed in Virginia 1691, Massachusetts 1705, North Carolina 1715, South Carolina 1717, Delaware 1721 and Pennsylvania in 1725. Intermarriage bans were lifted during Reconstruction in the early 1870's, but by the end of the decade mixed marriages were declared void. It wasn't until the 1950's and 1960's that all of these laws were lifted again. However in October, 1958, a Virginia grand jury indicted Mildred Loving and her white husband for violating the state's anti-miscegenation laws. Each pleaded guilty and received a one-year sentence. Their sentences were suspended providing they leave Virginia and not return for twenty-five years. The Loving's appealed that decision to the U. S. Supreme court in Loving v. Virginia 1967. and won. The Supreme Court struck down the Virginia law and similar laws in fifteen other states at the time. Statistics show that in 1991, there were 231,000 blacks married to whites, about 0.4 per cent of the total number of married couples in America. Still according to the 1994 National Health and Social Life Survey, 97% of black women are likely to choose a partner of the same race. Many black women-the culture bearers-oppose the idea of interracial marriage, opting instead for racial strength and unity through the stabilization of the Black family. (aareg)
1830  The National Negro Convention convenes in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing slavery. (tr-iokts)
1891  Lamine Gueye, Senegalese political leader, is born in Medine, Mali., USA. (died June 10, 1968, Dakar, Senegal) One of the most important Senegalese politicians before that country gained independence. As early as World War I, Guèye made radical demands for genuine assimilation of Africans into French culture and institutions. In the early 1920s he became the first African lawyer from French West Africa to study in Paris.  (tr-iokts)
1930  Eddie Bo, singer/pianist/producer, born Edwin Bocage, New Orleans, La, USA. After serving in the army, Bocage enroled at the Grunwald School of Music to study piano and music theory. His penchant for playing jazz and the more remunerative R&B led him to leading the house band at the Tijuana Club as 'Spider' Bocage. Later, with the Spider Bocage Orchestra, he toured with Guitar Slim, Smiley Lewis and Earl King. He first recorded with Johnny Vincent's Ace Label in 1955, before signing with Apollo in New York. He started a dance craze with Check Mr. Popeye. (mn-rs)
1958  Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was nearly fatally stabbed to death. While signing copies of his first book Stride Toward Freedom, a woman named Izola Ware Curry stabbed King with a letter opener in Blumsteins Department store in New York City. (aareg)
1984  The Cosby Show hits the US TV screens for the first time, also to become just as popular in UK.
2008 Nappy Brown dies. b. Napoleon Brown Culp, 12th October 1929, Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A. d. 20th September 2008, Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A. He went peacefully in his sleep. Nappy Brown, was one of the last remaining classic R & B vocalists and blues shouters, is featured on the cover and in the lead article in a recent issue of Living Blues magazine. The seven page article chronicles Brown's life from his birth in 1929 in Charlotte, North Carolina as well as his highly successful singing career which began with a series of hit recordings in the mid 1950s. During his heyday, in the mid to late 50s, Nappy was a prolific recording artist for Savoy Records and a much-in-demand stage performer, often playing every night and touring all over the country. During that period he traveled and performed with Jackie Wilson, Ray Charles, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Howlin' Wolf, Little Richard, Screamin' Jay Hawkins, Eddie Cleanhead Vinson, and T-Bone Walker. He provided ground-breaking hit songs for other artists, one of his biggest being "Night Time Is The Right Time" which was recorded and made famous by Ray Charles in 1958. Nappy Brown was active as a performer until the end, performing until his illness was too much. His last CD was recorded with a group of younger musicians with an abiding knowledge of and respect for Nappy's music and the era of its greatest success. Guitarists Sean Costello and Junior Watson, among others, provided superb backing for Nappy on Long Time Coming, his first studio recording in many years, which was released by Blind Pig Records on September 25, 2007. Said an exultant Nappy at the end of the recording sessions, "This is the best record I have done since 1955." Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent Inc. Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A. (soulwalking.co.uk)

21st. SEPTEMBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:   122: BEJAMIN E. MAY (1895-1984)
1814  Black troops cited for bravery in battle of New Orleans.
1897  Black Invention: Envelope seal, patent given to F.W. Leslie.
1901  Lord Learie Constantine, born in Diego Martin, near Port of Spain, Trinidad. He travelled to England in 1923 as a member of the West Indies cricket touring team for the 1928 tour, during which he scored over 1,000 runs a rook over 100 wickets. During the second World War Learie was employed by the Ministry of Defence as a welfare officer for West Indians working in Manchester. After the war he became a barrister and continued to expose discrimination. He wrote a book, the Colour Bar, in 1954. In 1958 he returned to Trinidad, was elected  to Parliament and became Minister of Works and Transport. He came back to England as High Commissioner for Trinidad & Tobago and was knighted in 1969. He became a governor of the B.B.C. and was made a life peer in 1969. (Dies July 1, 1971)
1952 Lord John Taylor born in Birmingham in 1952 to Jamaican parents. His father was Derief Taylor, a professional cricketer, and his mother was a nurse. Taylor attended Moseley Grammar School in Birmingham where he was head boy, then Keele University where he studied English Literature and Law, followed by the Inns of Court School of Law in London. In 2011 he was found guilty of stealing taxpayers money by make false claims. (wiki)

1964  Bo Carter, ribald bluesman, dies. Bo Carter (Armenter "Bo" Chatmon) had an unequaled capacity for creating sexual metaphors in his songs, specializing in such ribald imagery as "Banana in Your Fruit Basket," "Pin in Your Cushion," and "Your Biscuits Are Big Enough for Me." One of the most popular bluesmen of the '30s, he recorded enough material for several reissue albums, and he was quite an original guitar picker, or else three of those albums wouldn't have been released by Yazoo. (Carter employed a number of different keys and tunings on his records, most of which were solo vocal and guitar performances.) Carter's facility extended beyond the risqué business to more serious blues themes, and he was also the first to record the standard "Corrine Corrina" (1928). Bo and his brothers Lonnie and Sam Chatmon also recorded as members of the Mississippi Sheiks with singer/guitarist Walter Vinson.  (b.21/3/1894) (mn-rs)
1968  Trugoy The Dove rapper from Amityville, Long Island, USA, and member of the group De La Soul born David Jude Jolicoeur. At the time of its 1989 release, De La Soul's debut album, 3 Feet High and Rising, was hailed as the future of hip-hop. With its colorful, neo-psychedelic collage of samples and styles, plus the Long Island trio's low-key, clever rhymes and goofy humor, the album sounded like nothing else in hip-hop. Where most of their contemporaries drew directly from old-school rap, funk, or Public Enemy's dense sonic barrage, De La Soul were gentler and more eclectic, taking in not only funk and soul, but also pop, jazz, reggae, and psychedelia. Though their style initially earned both critical raves and strong sales, De La Soul found it hard to sustain their commercial momentum in the '90s as their alternative rap was sidetracked by the popularity of considerably harder-edged gangsta rap. (mn-jt)
1984  James Brown, famous soul singer is married on this day to Modell Rodriguez in South Carolina. (mn-jt)
1989  Gen. Colin Powell is confirmed by the U.S. Senate as chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, the highest military position in the United States. (tr-iokts)

22nd. SEPTEMBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  123: JOHN HOPE FRANKLIN (1915-    )
Independence Day - Republic of Mali.
1892  Black Invention: Window Cleaner, A. L. Lewis. (sc)
1906   On this date The Atlanta race riot occurred. This tragedy was the result of bitter white hostility toward blacks after vague reports of African Americans harassing White women. Over five days at least ten Black people were killed while Atlanta's police did nothing to protect black citizens, going so far as to confiscate guns from Atlantas Black community while allowing whites to remain armed. It was this and other events of hatred based incidents during what was called the Red Summers in the early twentieth century. They were part of a pattern of anti-Black violence that included several hundred lynching each year for over two decades. (aareg)
1915  Xavier University, the first African American catholic college, opens in New Orleans, La., USA. (tr-iokts)
1937  Big Twist, singer with the Mellow Fellows, born, Larry Nolan, Terre Haute, Ind., USA. Larry 'Big Twist' Nolan was the affable lead singer of the horn-dominated group, which included Pete Special and saxophonist Terry Ogilini. Before he joined the band in 1970, Twist, a journey-man musician and singer performed everything from blues to pop in Midwest bar bands was living in the collage town of Carbondale, Illinois. When he agreed to become the Mellow Fellows lead singer, he was playing drums in a country outfit. (Died March 14, 1990, Broadview, Ill, USA). (mn-rs)
1942   Marlena Shaw, jazz/soul vocals, b. Valhalla, NY, USA. Beginning as a soul artist on the Bluenote label in the early 1970's, Marlena's strong voice quickly establised her on the US soul scene. By the mid 1970's the disco scene was beginning to influence the sound of Bluenote and it was here that Marlena relesed "It's better than walking out", which was the first 12" on the Bluenote label. Switching to Columbia records in 1977 ensured better record sales; her first album here includes the disco track "Pictures and memories". Marlena, however, will best be remembered by disco fans for her cover version of Diana Ross's "Touch me in the morning" - the disco medley on the LP includes several late 1960's and early 1970's soul tunes. Listen out for "Love dancin'" and "Haven't we been in love before". (info.net-discogs.com)
1954 Shari Belafonte, Singer/Actress, b. Hackensack, NJ, USA. Harry Belafonte's daughter. Shari got her start as a successful cover girl model and appeared in commercials for Calvin Klein jeans. She made her feature film debut in 1982 in the movies Time Walker and If You Could See What I Hear. Shari attended Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts before transferring to Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh where she earned her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Drama. She started as a production assistant and assistant director in public television on the East Coast before moving to Los Angeles, where she became an assistant to the publicist at Hanna-Barbera productions. While getting her hands wet "behind the scenes", she has also received a number of modeling and commercial assignments, and has graced the cover of over 300 magazines.  (info.net-wickpedia)
1962   'Do You Love Me' - by The Contours was released on this day. It went on to be one of Motown's biggest sellers. The record was popular again in the late 90's due to it's inclusion in the 'Dirty Dancing' film soundtrack. (mn-info.net)

23rd. SEPTEMBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  124: PHILLIS WEATLEY (1753-1784) 
1863  Mary Church Terrell, educator, U.S. delegate to the International Peace Conference, born in Memphis, Tn., USA. A life long activist for women's rights and civil rights, she grew up among the black elite of Memphis. After her graduation from Oberlin College in 1884 Terrell moved to Europe to escape racism at home. In 1896 she returned and founded the National Association of Coloured Women, an important force in childcare, schools for domestic sciences, and equal rights. (Dies 1954 two months after Brown v Board of Education decision) (mn)
1905  Tiny Bradshaw, born Myron Bradshaw in Youngtown, Ohio, USA. Tiny Bradshw began his career in big band jazz, but he had his biggest success as a rhythm & blues singer in the early 1950s. Bradshaw attended Wilberforce University and studied psychology before moving to New York to begin a career in music. One of his first stints was with Marion Hardy's Alabamians, the group diat at one time had included Bradshaw's soon to be mentor, bandleader Cab Calloway. In 1934 Bradshaw started his own band based part on the style and sound of Calloway's big band. For a while Bradshaw's band featured vocalist Ella Fitzgerald, but he was better Known for hiring superior saxophonists such as Sonny Stitt and Red Prysock. He died of a stroke November 26, 1958, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. (mn-rs)
1907  Albert Ammons, boogie woogie pianist, born in Chicago, Ill, USA. Albert Ammons mas a major Boogie woogie pianist, who, along With Meade 'Lux" Lewis and Pete Johnson, helped make the romping boogie woogie piano style popular in the late 1930s and 1940s. In 1935 Ammons and his colleagues performed at John Hmmond's Spirituals to Swing concert at Carnegie Hall in New York. That legendary show led to a series of recordings with the Library of Congress, as well as with the Vocalion and Blue Note labels. These recordings documented Ammons's style, which was influenced by first generation boogie woogie stylists such as Jimmy Yancy and Pine Top Smith. In fact, Ammons's trademark tune, 'Boogie Woogie Stomp," is based on Smith's classic 'Pine Tops Boogie Woogie'. (Dies December 5, 1949. in Chicago). (mn-rs)
1926  John Coletrane alto saxophonist born. Since his death the most influential and imitated tenor saxophonist in jazz, born in Hamlet, North Carolina. Received his formal training in Philadelphia. Influenced by Charlie Parker, worked as a journeyman for many jazz masters. (Dies July 17, 1967). (mn-cl-ss)
1930  Ray Charles Robinson, soul singer/composer/arranger/pianist born in Albany, Georgia, USA. He was blinded by the age of 7 by Glaucoma. He then learned to play the piano and compose in Braille at a school for the blind. Orphaned at 15, he began performing and moved to Seattle in 1947. After scoring some hits on Swing Time Records, he switched to Atlantic Records in 1952, and there he began to develop the rougher blues-and-gospel style that became a major influence on black popular music and white rock 'n' roll. In 1955 Charles recorded his landmark hit I've Got A Woman with a passionate arrangement of horns, gospel-style piano, and vocals that presaged the soul music of the 60s, epitomized in his timeless hit What'd I Say (1959). He's also much in demand at patriotic and political events. Dies 2005 (mn-ss)
1934  Little Joe Blue, guitarist/singer, born Joe Valery, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA. Guitarist and singer Little Joe Blue was an unheralded bluesman who briefly recorded for the Checker (Chess) label in the mid 1960s and later became part the Saa Francisco Bay Area blues scene. His style, a blend of B.B. KING and LOWELL FULSON influences, endeared him to a small circle of blues fans, mostly on the West Coast where be lived for the better part of his career. Though born in Mississippi, Blue grew up in Louisiana. By 1951 he had settled in Detroit, where he worked on the auto assembly lines, Blue worded with Bobo Jenkins and other Motor City blues artists but was unable to expand his career beyond the local scene. After moving to California, Blue recorded three singles for Checker in 1966 "Dirty Work Goin' On," "My Tomorrow, 'and "Me and My Woman" but none of the records attracted much attention. Blue Continued to work small clubs, with an occasional tour of Europe with the American Blues Legends package. In 1977 he moved to Dallas and performed in local clubs there until relocating to Reo, Nevada. He died of cancer April 22, 1990, Reno, Nevada, USA. (mn-rs)
1938  Ben E. King soul singer born Benjamin Earl Nelson. From the groundbreaking orchestrated productions of the Drifters to his own solo hits, Ben E. King was the definition of R&B elegance. King's plaintive baritone had all the passion of gospel, but the settings in which it was displayed were tailored more for his honey smooth phrasing and crisp enunciation, proving for perhaps the first time that R&B could be sophisticated and accessible to straight pop audiences. King's approach influenced countless smooth soul singers in his wake and his records were key forerunners of the Motown sound.  (mn-jt)
1949  Floella benjamin (presenter/actor) born.  Playschool & Playaway. Known to a generation of Britons as a presenter of popular children's programmes such as Play School and Playaway. She was born in Trinidad and Tobago and emigrated to the UK in the 1960s. After a spell as an actress, she began presenting children's television programmes in the 1980s. She was awarded an OBE in 2001 for services to broadcasting. At that time she was chairman of BAFTA. Her autobiography, Coming To England was a success.  (nationmaster)
1973  Wigan Casino opened it's doors for the first time to the soul fraternity at 2 a.m. The first record played was Put Your Loving Arms Around Me by The Sherries and the D.J. was Russ Winstanley. By 1981 when it closed the home of Northern Soul had more than 100,000 members. (mn-rw-dn)
1980  Bob Marley played his final concert at the Stanley Theater in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The live version of "Redemption Song" on Songs of Freedom was recorded at this show.[4] Marley afterwards sought medical help from Munich specialist Josef Issels, but his cancer had already progressed to the terminal stage. (wickpedia)
1991  Striker Ian Wright is purchased from Crystal Palace by Arsenal for £2 million.

24th. SEPTEMBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION: 125: ALEXANDER PUSHKIN (1799-1837)
1825  Frances E. W. Harper, a highly acclaimed novelist, poet and anti-slavery lecturer is born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA when it was still a slave city. She published her first volume of poetry early in her life (1845), then taught sewing for a while before continuing her career as a poet. In the same year that her second volume of poetry was published, 1854, she gave her first anti-slavery lecture. By the end of the decade she had become the most popular A-American poet in the Union. In 1864 she returned to lecturing on social issues and helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured Women (1896). The most prolific A-American author of her time.
1894  Edwin Franklin Frazier, social scientist, born in Washington, D.C. (1894-1962) Sociologist and educator, E. Franklin Frazier was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1916 he graduated cum laude from Howard University with a B.A. degree and accepted a position as mathematics instructor at Tuskegee Institute. He received his M.A. degree from Clark University in 1920 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1931. A grant from the American Scandinavian Foundation enabled him to go to Denmark to study "folk" schools. From 1922 to 1924, Frazier taught sociology and African studies at Morehouse College in Atlanta, then served as director of the Atlanta School of Social Work until 1927. He was on the faculty at Fisk University from 1931 until 1934, after which he became head of Howard University's department of sociology, a post he held until named professor emeritus in 1959. Frazier was a prolific writer; he was the author of several books including the controversial Black Bourgeoise. His numerous awards included a 1940 Guggenheim Fellowship and the John Anisfield Award. (mn)
1939   Wayne Henderson, Trombone, b. Houston, TX, USA. In 1961, he co-founded the hard bop group The Jazz Crusaders. Henderson left the group (who had changed their name to The Crusaders) in 1975 to pursue a career in producing, but revived The Jazz Crusaders in 1995.   (info.net-wickpedia)
1940 Mamie "Galore" Davis, Blues vocals. b. Erwin, USA. d. Oct. 6, 2001 (stroke, age 61). After graduating from O'Bannon High School and joined a local band. During her career, she performed with such musicians as Little Johnny Burton, Buddy Hicks, Little Milton and the Ike and Tina Turner Revue. In 1965, under her first producer, Monk Higgins, she recorded her first solo recording, "Special Agent 34-24-38", for the St. Lawrence label. She recorded two more singles for St. Lawrence, including her biggest hit, "It Ain't Necessary", in 1966. (info.net)
1957  President Eisenhower orders federal troops to Little Rock, Ar, to enforce court-ordered integration of 18 Black students at Central High School. News photographs at the time show Elizabeth Eckford trying to pass through a cordon of white jeering students. (mn-ss)
2000  Denise Lewis from West Bromwich who holds the Commonwealth Heptathlon Record (6736 in 1997). Olympic Bronze 1996; World silver 1997; Commonwealth Gold 1994, wins the Olympic Gold Heptathlon in Sydney, Australia. (mn)

25th. SEPTEMBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION:   126: ALEXANDRE DUMAS (1802-1870) 
1925  La Revue Negre, the first American Black troupe to play in Paris, debuted on this date. A vivacious, sensual 18-year-old woman was featured in a supporting role: Josephine Baker. While America shunned her, the Parisians, with their appetite for exotic personalities with dark skin, immediately fell in love with her. Baker became an overnight sensation in Europe. She reveled in near nudity and was famous for her "banana dance", for which she wore little more than a belt of bananas, and it became the trademark of European revues. During World War II, she was a spy for the French Resistance. (info.net)
1911  Dr. Eric Williams, former prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago, born. In his book Capitalism and Slavery (1944), he suggests that slavery came to an end more because of the falling price of sugar rather than the good works of the abolitionists at the time. Controversy over this still continues but his theory is widely believed. (mn-pf)
1936 Booba Barnes, blues guitarist and singer born Roosevelt Barnes, Longwood Mississippi, USA. His brand of blues is raw and jagged and stems from years of playing juke joints, including his own, the Playboy Club, in Greenville, Mississippi. Inspired by Howlin' Wolf, Barnes began his career as a harmonica player. By 1960 he was also playing guitar in a Delta band called the Swinging Gold Coasters. Barnes moved to Chicago in 1964 and performed on and off in the city's blues clubs. In 1971 he returned to Mississippi, formed a new band, and began playing juke joints in and around Greenville. (mn-rs) 
1939 Joe Russell of the Persuasions born.
1940  Wade Flemons, soul singer born in Coffeyville, Kansas, USA.  Respected by UK Northern soul fans for his "Jeanette" on the Ramsel label and "That Other Place" on Tollie records. (Dies 13th October, 1993). (mn-cl)  
1945 Dee Dee Warwick born, sister of Dionne Warwick (1945)  
1945 Onnie McIntyre of Average White Band born (1945)
1947 Cecil Womack of Womack and Womack born.  
1973 Eric Roberson born.
1974  Barbara W. Hancock is the first African American woman to be named a White House Fellow. (tr-iokts) 
1978 Ryan Leslie born. 
1968 Will Smith born.
1991   On this date in 1991, "The Blood of Jesus" was chosen as one of 25 films added to the Library of Congress's National Film Registry. Black director Spencer William's 1941 movie is about an atheist who accidentally shoots his Baptist wife. She dies and goes to an afterlife crossroads, where the devil tries to lead her astray. (aareg) 
2016 Kashif dies. (b. Michael Jones a.k.a. Kashif Saleem, 26th December 1959, New York City, New York, U.S.A. d. at Playa del Rey, Los Angeles, U.S.A.)


26th. SEPTEMBER  
BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION: 127: CHARLES W. CHESNUTT (1858-1932) 
1899  William Dawson, composer,  musician, born in Anniston, Al., USA. This prominent Afro-American composer, arranger, and educator was born William Levi Dawson and was credited with and without the middle initial throughout his long and accomplished career. Like many prodigal sons, and this artist can certainly be said to be one of the state of Alabama's greatest prodigies, Dawson's story begins with running away from home. He was 13 years old and was fleeing the life of a common laborer in the town of Anniston, AL, a decision that has been made by many residents over the years. Very few, however, had the motivations of Dawson, who got into the Tuskegee Institute and paid to complete his education there with whatever work he could find. (died May 2,1990 Tuskage, Alabama)
1937  Bessie Smith, Empress of Blues, dies after a car crash from loss of blood, rumours that she was refused admission to hospital because she was black were denied. Bessie Smith was the greatest and most influential classic blues singer of the 1920s. Her full-bodied blues delivery coupled with a remarkable self-assuredness that worked it's way in and around most every note she sang, plus her sharp sense of phasing, enabled her to influence virtually every female blues singer who followed. During her heyday, she sold hundreds of thousands of records and earned upwards of $2000 per week, which was a queenly sum in the 1920s. (mn-rs)
1937  Black Invention: Lawn sprinkler design, E.J. McCoy patents it.
1969  Fresh Prince, pop rapper/actor from Philadelphia, real name Will Smith member of D.J. Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince is born today. Beginning his career during the mid-'80s under the name the Fresh Prince, by the following decade rapper Will Smith was one of the biggest superstars of his time not only a pop music sensation, he also conquered television and eventually feature films, starring in a string of box-office megahits.  (mn-ms)
1991  John Major spoke out in the Guardian newspaper on racial prejudice, his roots in Brixton, and named some historical black personalities like Mary Seacole, Samuel Coleridge Taylor and Sir Leari  Constantine. (mn)
1998  Betty Carter, jazz singer dies, she was 69. Arguably the most adventurous female jazz singer of all time, Betty Carter was an idiosyncratic stylist and a restless improviser who pushed the limits of melody and harmony as much as any bebop horn player. The husky-voiced Carter was capable of radical, off-the-cuff reworkings of whatever she sang, abruptly changing tempos and dynamics, or rearranging the lyrics into distinctive, off-the-beat rhythmic patterns. She could solo for 20 minutes, scat at lightning speed, or drive home an emotion with wordless, bluesy moans and sighs. (mn-echoes)

27th. SEPTEMBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION:  128: PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR (1872-1906)  
1822  Hiram R. Revels, first black American in the U.S. Senate, born. He studied at a number of collages and seminaries and became an ordained minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore in 1845. He helped to recruit African American regiments during the Civil War and begun a school for freedmen in St. Louis in 1863.(Dies January 16, 1901) (mn-ra-ss)
1912  W.C. Handy's 'Memphis Blues' is published. "Memphis Blues", written 1909, published 1912. Although usually subtitled "Boss Crump", it is a distinct song from Handy's campaign satire, "Boss Crump don't 'low no easy riders around here", which was based on the good-time song "Mamma Don't Allow It." (mn-wickpedia)
1941  Don Nix, musician with May-Keys, born Memphis Tennessee, USA.  Despite scoring only one national hit, the 1961 instrumental smash "Last Night," the Mar-Keys remain one of the most important groups ever to emerge from the Memphis music scene. As the first house band for the legendary Stax label, they appeared on some of the greatest records in soul history, with their ranks also producing such renowned musicians as guitarist Steve Cropper and bassist Donald "Duck" Dunn. The Mar-Keys formed in 1958 and included drummer Terry Johnson, pianist Jerry Lee "Smoochie" Smith, saxophonists Don Nix and Charles Axton, and trumpeter Wayne Jackson in addition to Cropper and Dunn. Originally dubbed the Royal Spades, in 1960 the group joined the staff at Axton's mother Estelle's Satellite label, backing artists that included Rufus Thomas and his daughter Carla. A year later, the Mar-Keys headlined the Chips Moman-penned "Last Night," which reached the number three spot in the summer of 1961.  (mn-cl-ja)
1944  Stephanie Pogue, artist and art professor, is born in Shelby, N.C., USA. Like that of David Driskell, Stephanie Pogue's career as an art professor and art collector has had a lasting impact upon her growth and development as an artist. Her 1977 etching Aaron's Meadow, for example, was created as an homage to the renowned Harlem Renaissance artist Aaron Douglas. An avid collector of Douglas's work, Pogue created Aaron's Meadow as a testament to the quiet, genteel, highly intellectual man who had dedicated his life to the production and promotion of dignified, positive images of African American life and history. Pogue's inclusion of Douglas's distinctive vegetation, which appeared in such works as his 1934 mural Aspects of Negro Life and the 1935 mural Evolution of the Negro Dance, pays homage to Douglas's aesthetic sensibilities. Pogue explained that she combined the concept of a peaceful meadow with images from Douglas's own stylistic vocabulary to infuse the work with an aura of quiet contemplation, creating a feeling of intimacy between the audience and her testament to Douglas.    (tr-iokts)
1953  Robbie Shakespeare bass guitarist with Sly & Robbie born today in  Kingston, Jamaica. Known as the Riddum Twins, their playing has been the backbone for hundreds of reggae artists of the last 25 years. With Sly (Lowell Dunbar), drummer, have been at the heart of two major upheavals in reggae development, and, second only to Bob Marley, they've taken Jamaican music to the rest of the world. (mn-jt-llb)
1953 Diane Julie Abbott (born in Paddington, London) is a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, representing the Hackney North and Stoke Newington constituency. She was the first black woman elected to the House of Commons when she was elected in the 1987 General Election. She remained the only black woman MP for ten years until she was joined in the Commons by Oona King in 1997. She is seen as being to the left of New Labour and is a member of the Socialist Campaign Group. (nationmaster)
1970  Marcus Anthony Gayle, 6'1, 12.9 footballer born in Hammersmith. Club honours: Div 3 '92. International honours: E: Youth. Jamaica: 5. (cm-mn)
1990  Marvin Gaye's name was added to the Walkway Of The Stars on Hollywood Boulevard, six years after his death. (mn-jt)
2000  Channel 5 Television broadcasts the film 'Ronkswood'. A film about the African American lynchings that took place in the 1920's. It's thought that over 150 African-Americans were hunted and murdered in or around Ronkswood. (mn)
2012 R.B. Greaves Dies (b. Ronald Bertram Aloysius R. B. Greaves III, 28th November 1943, Georgetown, Guyana. d. 27th September 2012, Inglewood, California, U.S.A). R.B Greaves, the singer who brought us the 1969 hit 'Take A Letter Maria', has died. He was 68. Ronald passed away from prostate cancer at his home in California. 'Take a Letter Maria' became a number two hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, selling in excess of one million copies. The parent album was produced by Ahmet Ertegun and recorded at Muscle Shoals Sound. He later reached the Top 40 again , one year later, with his take on the Burt Bacharach's and Hal David song, '(There's) Always Something There to Remind Me'. Born in 1943 in Guyana, Ronald was a nephew of Sam Cooke In 1963 he relocated to the United Kingdom, building a career in his home country and the U.K. In the U.K., he recorded under the name of Sonny Childe with his group The TNTs.'Take a Letter Maria', has been recorded by both Tom Jones and Stevie Wonder prior to his own version of his song.Ronald also recorded his take on Procol Harum's 'A Whiter Shade of Pale' for the ATCO imprint.In the 1970's he recorded for Bareback Records, and then witched label to Sunflower Records.At Sunflower he recorded the song 'Margie, Who's Watching the Baby'. At Bareback he released one self titled album in 1977.His other Top 40 recordings included covers of 'Fire and Rain' (1970), 'Whiter Shade of Pale' (1970), 'Margie, Who's Watching the Baby' (1972) and 'Naked Eyes' (1983).In recent years he worked for a technology company in Los Angeles. (soulwalking)  2012 Frank Edward Wilson, songwriter, record producer, singer and minister of the church, born 5 December 1940; died 27 September 2012. He had a cancelled release on Motown (Do I Love You) that only two copies exsist. Recently sold for £25,000. (mn)

28th. SEPTEMBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION: 129: CLAUDE MCKAY (1890-1948)  
PCRL D.J. SIMS BORN
1785  David Walker, black abolitionist, writer of the famous "Appeal", born.  (died: June 28, 1830)  He was born in Wilmington, North Carolina. In the 1820s he made a living from a clothing store that he had set up. In Boston, Walker made acquaintances with black rights activists and was involved with the Freedom's Journal of New York City, which was the first African American newspaper. In September 1829, he published a pamphlet entitled Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, which was directed towards the enslaved men and women of the South. Because of Walker's Appeal, which caused many slaves to gain hope of becoming free, plantation owners created a $3,000 bounty for anyone who killed Walker, and a $10,000 reward for anyone who brought him back alive. In June 1830, not long after publishing the third edition of his Appeal, David Walker was found dead in his home. Many believe he was poisoned, although there is no evidence to support that allegation. Probably the first printed assertion of black nationalism in the United States, the tract was condemned by many as extremist and even denounced by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (mn-wickpedia)
1935  Koko Taylor soul singer born Cora Watson, Memphis, Tenn. Accurately dubbed "the Queen of Chicago blues" (and sometimes just the blues in general), Koko Taylor helped keep the tradition of big-voiced, brassy female blues belters alive, recasting the spirits of early legends like Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, Big Mama Thornton, and Memphis Minnie for the modern age. Taylor's rough, raw vocals were perfect for the swaggering new electrified era of the blues, and her massive hit "Wang Dang Doodle" served notice that male dominance in the blues wasn't as exclusive as it seemed. After a productive initial stint on Chess, Taylor spent several decades on the prominent contemporary blues label Alligator, going on to win more W.C. Handy Awards than any other female performer in history, and establishing herself as far and away the greatest female blues singer of her time. (mn-rs)
1939  Rudolph Walker (uk actor) born. (nationmaster)
1948  Jimmy 'Bo' Horne, soul singer born. Miami-based vocalist Jimmy "Bo" Horne enjoyed some success in the '70s doing dance-oriented songs and novelty tracks for such labels as Alston and Sunshine. "Dance Across the Floor" was his lone R&B Top 10 hit in 1978, and it was written and produced by Harry Casey, better known as K.C. of K.C. and the Sunshine Band fame. Horne's other Top 20 R&B single was "You Get Me Hot" in 1979 for Sunshine, although the prior release, "Spank," clicked in many clubs during the year. Horne's last single was "Is It In" in 1980, which flopped. He has a mega rare Northern Soul release 'I Just Can't Speak' on Dade that was popular in the UK in the Mid-90's.  (mn-jt)
1972 Steve Johnson WBC Lightweight World Champion Boxer is born. Record: 23-0 (13). Best wins: Sharmba Mitchell; Jean-Baptiste Mendy and Saul Duran. He lives in Denver, Colerado, USA. (mn-ring)1972  Jack Alphonso Rodney, 5'7", 10.9 footballer, born in Kingstown, St. Vincent. International Honours: St. Vincent: 65. (bh-mn)
1991  Miles Davis, jazz trumpet player dies. One of the foremost jazz musician's of the century, known internationally to his fans as - Miles - set styles in demeanour and sartorial elegance as well as to music. Born to a well-to-do professional family in Alton, Illinois, he was raised near St. Louis and begun playing the trumpet in local school bands. (mn-jt-ss)
2000  Darren Campbell wins Olympic Silver Medal for 200 metres sprint at the Sydney games. (mj)

29th. SEPTEMBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
EDUCATION: 130: COUNTEE CULLEN (1903-1948) 
1860   Henrietta Vinton Davis born. She was an outstanding African-American actress and an international leader of the Garvey movement. Born in Baltimore to Mansfield and Ann Johnson Davis, she taught school in Maryland and Louisiana, and in 1878 became the first black woman employed at the Office of the Recorder of Deeds in Washington D. C., where she worked as an assistant to Frederick Douglass. Davis dramatic career began in 1883 and over the next decade she traveled widely as an elocutionist, attracting large audiences with her work by Dunbar, Shakespeare, and others. She started her own company in Chicago in 1893, traveling to the Caribbean, and collaborated on writing Our Old Kentucky Home. Her connections in Jamaica and her friendship with Marcus Garvey attracted her to the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1918. Her experience as an actress were an effective communication vehicle with the ideals of the Garvey movement, though she became disillusioned with its mission later on. Henrietta Vinton Davis died November 23rd 1941. (aareg)
1909  Eddie Tolan was born on this date in 1909. He was an African-American sprinter. Tolan from Denver, Colo., was that areas city and state champion in the 100- and 200-yard dashes. At the University of Michigan, he attracted national attention in 1929 when he set a record in the 100-yard dash (9.5 seconds) and tied the record of 10.4 seconds in the 100-meter dash. The 5 foot 7 inch Tolan, who raced with his glasses taped to his head, won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship in the 200- and 220-yard dashes and the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) championship in the 100- and 220-yard events between 1929 and 1931. He finished second to Ralph Metcalfe in the 100- and 200-meter dashes in the trials for the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. In the Games themselves, however, Tolan set an Olympic record by handily winning the 200-meter in 21.2 seconds, and he eked out a narrow photo-finish victory over Metcalfe in the 100-meter in 10.3 seconds, setting a world record. Subsequently, Tolan had a brief career as a vaudeville performer with Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and later became a schoolteacher. Edward Thomas Tolan was the first Black athlete to win two Olympic gold medals. In his track career Tolan won 300 races, losing only 7. While attending high school in Detroit, Mich., often called The Midnight Express. He died Jan. 30, 1967 in Detroit, Michigan (aareg)
1931  Dr. Lenora Moragne, one of the leading nutrition scientists in the U.S., born in Evanston, Il.
1946   Roger Hatcher, vocals, b. Birmingham, AL, USA. (nfo.net)
1948  Bryant Gumbel, first African-American to anchor a national network morning news and entertainment program, is born. In 1982 he did this by becoming the co-host of NBC's popular "Today" program. He had broken into journalism in 1972, writing for the monthly black sport and working as a sports commentator for KNBC-TV in Los Angeles. In 1976, the year in which he became KNBC's sports director, he won the first of several Emmy Awards. From 1980 to 1982 he was the sports commentator for the "Today" show, a position he held until he became it's co-host. In 1986 he was voted the Best Morning TV News Interviewer by the Washington Journal Review's annual poll. (ss-mm-tr-iokts)
1975  Jackie Wilson fell into a coma from which he never recovered. When he died in 1984 he had spent nine years as a vertual vegetable, and in 1986 topped the UK singles chart with Reet Petite a 29-year-old recording. It was said that he did show some signs of recovery in the early days but his therapy was delayed because of 'paperwork' until it was too late to help him. (mn-jt)
1980  The Schomburg Centre specialising in black cultural research, opens in New York, USA, cost of $3.8M.

30th. SEPTEMBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT 
EDUCATION:  131: JAMES WELDON JOHNSON (1871-1938) 
1966  Independence Day - Republic of Botswana. Bechuanaland becomes a republic under the name of Botswana.
1935  Z.Z. Hill soul singer born Arzel Hill in Naples, Texas, USA. Hill had been a journeyman soul singer for nearly 20 years before the world caught wind of his 60s-based R&B. While he began his musical career with the gospel group the Spiritual Five, it wasn't until he signed with Kent that his secular side began to bud.(Died April 27, 1984,Dallas, Texas, USA. (mn-rs-ao)
1935  Johnny Mathis soul singer born in San Francisco, California, USA. Johnny Mathis has been scoring hits since the late '50s. While his music does appeal to an r&b audience, it has been more geared towards middle of the road pop. where it has been extremely successful. Originally recording for Fontana Records. his early UK success came with 'Teacher Teacher'(top 30, 1958), 'A Certain Smile' (top 5,1958), 'Winter Wonderland' (top 20, 1958), 'Someone' (top 10, 1959)  and 'The Best Of Everything' (top 30, 1959). When Fontana released these songs on Johnny's Greatest Hits, it stayed in the American charts for 490 weeks! (mn-jt)
1942  Frankie Lymon soul singer born, Washington Heights, New York, USA, d. 28 February 1968, New York City, New York, UM. Often billed as the "Joy wonder', Lymon first entered the music business after teaming up wisth a local all vocal quartet, the Premiers. Lymon joined the group in 1954 and soon afterwards They were signed to the Gee label as the Teenagers. Their debut, the startling 'Why Do Fools Fall In Love?', was issued on 1 January 1956 and soon climbed into the US Top 10, a alongside the early recordings of Elvis Presley and Carl Perkins. The song went on to reach number 1 in the UK and sold two million copies.
1943  Marilyn McCoo soul singer with Fifth Dimension born. Formed in Los Angeles during the mid '60s, The Fifth Dimension were Marilyn McCoo  and Billy Davis Jr., Lamonte McLemore, Florence LaRue and Ron Townson originally known as The Versatiles. While on tour with Ray Charles they came to the attention of Marc Gordon who became their manager and signed them to the Soul City label in 1967, Here they scored American hits with 'Go Where You Wanna Go', 'Up Up & Away' and 'One Less Bell To Answer' from their seven gold albums for the label through to 1972. In the UK their recordings were released on the Liberty label, their hits here being 'Aquarius   Let The Sunshine In' (Top 20, 1969) and 'Wedding Bell Blues' (Top 20, 1970). Ron Townson later Formed a group Wild Honey with Vesta Williams while Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis Jr scored hit duets on thelr own. (mn-jt-rt)
1946  Sylvia Peterson soul singer with The Chiffons born. Formed in the Bronx, New York, USA. They are best recalled for 'He's So Fine', a superb girl group release and an international hit in 1963. The song later acquired a dubious infamy when its melody appeared on George Harrison's million-selling single 'My Sweet Lord'. Taken to court by the original publishers, the ex Beatle was found guilty of plagiarism and obliged to pay substantial damages. This battle made little difference to the Chiffons, who despite enjoying hits with 'One Fine Day' (1963) and 'Sweet Talkin' Guy' (1966), were all too soon reduced to the world of cabaret and 'oldies' nights. They did, however record their own version of 'My Sweet Lord'. (mn-jt-cl)
1954  Patrice Rushen, soul singer/keyboard player born in Los Angeles. Patrice enrolled at a special music school at the age of three and was giving classical piano recitals from the age of six. In 1972 she entered and won a competition at the Monterey Jazz Festival, shortly after which she was signed as an artist by the jazz label Prestige Records. Here she was the first woman emerge on the jazz and r&b scene as a self contained recording artist writing playing and singing her own music. She released three albums, Traverse (1974), Before The Dawn (1975) and Shout lt Out (1977). Switching to Elektra Records, her music became more dance/vocal oriented.(mn-jt-cl)
1959  Kojak of Kojak and Liza, reggae artiste born Floyd Anthony Perch in Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. He began his career chanting on various sound systems under guise of Pretty Boy Floyd. He adopted the gangster image that had proved successful for Dennis Alcapone and Dillinger, but was unable emulate the fortunes of his role models and changed his stage name to Nigger Kojak in response to a title given to him by his followers. Inspired by the 70s television series Kojak, he simulated the show's star with a shaved head and appeared with the obligatory lollipop. (rt-mn)
1964  Marley Marl, rap music producer from Queens, USA, real name Marlon Williams, is born. As a brilliant producer, Marley Marl has collected more precious medals than any one rap performer. Two platinum records and eight gold ones hang on his living room wall. Marley got his start by faking a knowledge of broadcast equipment in order to work as assistant to Mr. Magic, New York's first rap radio DJ Mr. Magic aired Marley's tapes, recorded on a cheap four track deck in his living room. His unpolished style, dubbed "the Marley sound, "set a standard that other producers copied, and they have followed him ever since. Marley now records in the upstate New York split level where he lives alone. His equipment includes a $275,000, 48 track mixing board and enough audio components to fill a small music store. (mn-cl-ms)
1971 (Andrew) Andy Rodney Impey, 5'8", 11.2 footballer born in Hammersmith, London, England. International Honours: E: U21-1. West Ham paid £1,300,000 for him 26/9.97. (bh-mn)
1975  Boxers Mohammed Ali and Joe Frazier fight 'Thrilla in Manila'. Ali wins!
2006 Prentiss Barnes of the vocal ensemble, the Moonglows, has been killed in a traffic accident. He was 81. His family of fourteen consisted of ten brothers and four sisters. In his early teens, Prentiss Barnes moved to New Orleans and worked odd jobs. Later, he relocated to Louisville, Kentucky. Prentiss met Harvey Fuqua, Bobby Lester, Pete Graves, and Billy Johnson in Kentucky where they started a band called the Crazy Sounds in 1951. That group was discovered and promoted by Alan Freed,  who eventually changed their name to The Moonglows. In March 2000, at the 15th Annual Induction Ceremony of the Rock N Roll Hall of Fame in New York, Prentiss received the honor of being inducted. (soulglow)

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