2.8.12

October's Black History

The Peoples Community Radio Link, 103.5 F.M Stereo

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1st. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  (EDUCATION:)  
132: RICHARD WRIGHT (1908-1960)
Independence Day - Nigeria
1841  Fannie Moore Richards, activist, born. She was born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, October 1, 1841. As her people left that State when she was quite young she did not see so much of the intolerable conditions as did the older members of the family. Miss Richards was successful in getting an early start in education. Desiring to have better training than what was then given to persons of color in Detroit, she went to Toronto. There she studied English, history, drawing and needlework. In later years she attended the Teachers Training School in Detroit. Her first thought was to take up teaching that she might do something to elevate her people. She, therefore, opened a private school in 1863, doing a higher grade of work than that then undertaken in the public schools. About 1862, however, a colored public school had been opened by a white man named Whitbeck. Miss Richards began to think that she should have such a school herself.  (tr-iokts)
1931  Barbecue Bob, blues guitarist, dies in Lithonia, Ga, USA. Robert "Barbecue Bob" Hicks was born 11 September, 1902, in Walnut Grove, Walton Co., Georgia. Bob started playing six string guitar in his early teens after learning it from his brother, Charley Hicks (11 March 1900 - 28 September 1963), moving on to his signature twelve string after moving to Atlanta in 1923-24, also in his brother's footsteps. In Atlanta he found employment at Titwell's Barbecue from where it is most likely he picked up his pseudonym. Bob made his recording debut for Columbia in Atlanta in March 1927, which must have been successful in the opinion of his producers as further sessions for Columbia included sides recorded in a purpose built studio in New York City. Bob's recording during this period also included sides recorded with his brother Charley. Bob recorded regularly from 1927 until his death only four years later. Bob also recorded as the Georgia Cotton Pickers with Curley Weaver playing second guitar and Buddy Moss on harp again for Columbia in Atlanta in 1931. Bob's style was his own employing almost exclusively open tunings in open A/G ("Spanish"), and occasionally open D/E ("Vestapol"), using a fingerstyle and bottleneck technique. Like all bluesmen he used a few melodies that he then re-arranged to suit a new vocal arrangement. Bob died of "consumption" (pneumonia) on 21 October, 1931, in Lithonia, Georgia, and was buried near to his home (mn-rs)
1936  George 'Wild Child' Butler, journey man harmonica player/singer, born, Autaugaville, Ala., USA. earned his blues stripes beginning in the late 1950s when he took his unique harmonica sound and singing from rural Alabama juke joints to the clubs of Chicago. In the late 1960s, he performed mostly in New Orleans and Houston before returning to Chicago and then touring extensively. Wild Child eventually settled in Canada with his wife Elaine, who survives him.Wild Child's recording debut came on the Sharp label in 1964. Between 1966 and 1968, he recorded singles produced by Willie Dixon for Jewel Records. He later had releases on Mercury, TK Records, Charly, Rooster Blues, MC Records, Bullseye Blues and APO Records. His final record, Sho' 'Nuff, was released in 2001. (dies 1/3/05) (mn-rs)
1942  Herb Fame, soul singer born Herbert Feemster, sang solo & with  Peaches & Herb, known as the Sweethearts of Soul. Herb began singing in church when he was seven years old, and in D.C. neighborhood groups through high school. After high school, he worked in a record store. Herb signed with Van McCoy (who would produce “The Hustle”) and Date Records in 1965 as a solo artist. Another DC group, The Sweet Things, also signed with Date Records. McCoy used some leftover recording time to pair Herb with Sweet Things’ Francine “Peaches” Barker. The A-side, “We’re in This Thing Together,” didn’t do much, but the B-side, “Let’s Fall in Love,” became Peaches and Herb’s first hit single, going to number 11 on the R&B chart in December, 1966. The song had been a number one pop hit for Eddy Duchin in 1934. The duo’s follow-up, “Close your Eyes,” written by Chuck Willis, went to number four on the R&B chart and number eight on the pop chart in 1967. Peaches and Herb had more hits in 1967 including “For Your Love,” a remake of Mickey and Sylvia’s “Love is Strange,” “Close Your Eyes,” and “Two Little Kids.” Their two hit albums in 1967 were “For Your Love” and “Let’s Fall in Love.” Francine Barker left the duo in 1967 and was replaced by a series of “Peaches.” The hits continued over the next few years, including “The Ten Commandments of Love,” “United,” “When He Touches Me (Nothing Else Matters),” and “It’s Just a Game, Love.” Herb decided to quit singing in 1970 and joined the Washington, D.C. police department, from which he is now retired. He released a few singles on his own BS label, but it wasn’t until 1977 that he made a comeback, this time with Linda Greene as the new Peaches. They charted that year with the Van McCoy- produced “We’re Still Together” on MCA Records. The next year, the duo signed with Polydor Records and Herb’s old friend Freddie Perren. Herb and Perrin, had been friends when they both worked in DC record stores. Perren had gone on to produce and write for the Jackson 5 and the Miracles, among others. Peaches and Herb’s first single, “Shake your Groove Thing,” went gold in 1978. That same year their biggest hit, “Reunited,” went platinum, hitting the number one spot for four weeks on both the R&B and pop charts. Both songs were on the 1979 platinum album “2 Hot.” Other hit songs that followed included “We’ve Got Love,” “Roller Skate Mate (Part 1) and “I Pledge My Love.”   (mn-cl-wamadc.com)
1943  Jerry Martini born in Colorado is an American musician, best known for being the saxophonist for the popular and influential psychedelic soul/funk band Sly & the Family Stone. It was at Martini's suggestion that the band came about, and he became one of its key figures.   (mn-jt)
1944  Barbara Parritt soul singer with the Toys born today.The Toys appeared on many musical television programs, including Shindig, Hullabaloo, American Bandstand, Hy Lit, Where the Action Is, Clay Cole, and Upbeat. Dyno Voice released "Attack" as the follow-up and watched it soar to number 18 pop. They even had a cameo spot in the film It's a Bikini World, which also featured the Castaways, the Animals, and the Gentrys. Two more releases charted in 1966, they switched to Philips Records for several singles in 1967, and then moved to Musicor where they had their last chart hit in 1968 ("Sealed With a Kiss," number 112 pop); the group split shortly afterward. Parritt and Montiero joined fake Marvelettes groups (there were about five fake Marvelette groups doing gigs at the time). Harris married a musician (Kenneth Wiltshire) and sung with bands doing the N.Y. bar scene. Harris reformed the Toys in the '90s for oldies reunion gigs, and with her husband's help, cut a solo CD titled Barbara Now. Her two enterprising sons financed her CD from their computer business' profits. Parritt and Montiero live in Queens and both still perform.  (mn-jt)
1945  Donny Hathaway singer/songwriter/producer/musician born on this day in Chicago, USA. Best remembered for his duets with Roberta Flack ('Where Is The Love'; 'The Closer I Get To You'). Donny Hathaway was one of the brightest new voices in soul music at the dawn of the '70s, possessed of a smooth, gospel-inflected romantic croon that was also at home on fiery protest material. Hathaway achieved his greatest commercial success as Roberta Flack's duet partner of choice, but sadly he's equally remembered for the tragic circumstances of his death -- an apparent suicide at age 33. He moved to St. Louis when he was very young, and began singing in church with his grandmother at the scant age of three. He began playing piano at a young age, and by high school, he was impressive enough to win a full-ride fine arts scholarship to Howard University to study music in 1964. While in college, he performed with a cocktail jazz outfit called the Ric Powell Trio, and wound up leaving school after three years to pursue job opportunities he was already being offered in the record industry. (mn)
1955  Howard Hewett, soul singer, born, Akron, OH, USA. Among the great pure vocalists of the urban contemporary era, Howard Hewett has seldom found material worthy of his tremendous skills. He grew up in Akron, Ohio, and relocated to Los Angeles. Hewett danced on Soul Train, and became one-third of Shalamar with Jeffrey Daniel and Jody Watley in 1979. They had several big hits before Hewett departed for a solo career in 1985. He signed with Elektra, and his second single, "I'm for Real," was a number two R&B hit in 1986. The follow-up single, "Stay," also made the Top Ten, while "I Commit to Love" in 1987 reached number 12. Hewitt remained on Elektra through the '80s and into the '90s, earning another hit with "Strange Relationshp" in 1988, and cutting duets with Dionne Warwick and Anita Baker. He's also been busy as a writer, producer, and session vocalist. Hewett co-wrote and produced "Frustration" for LaToya Jackson in 1984, and sang on her LP Heart Don't Lie. He did lead vocals on LPs by Stanley Clarke and George Duke in 1984 and 1986, a duet with Stacy Lattisaw on "Ain't No Mountain High Enough," and sang with Firefox in 1986, as well as doing backgrounds on a Donna Summer release. ~ Ron Wynn, All Music Guide (mn-fp)
1970  Jimi Hendrix was buried in Seattle. Amongst the mourners were Miles Davis, Eric Burden, and all four members of Eric Clapton's group Derek & Dominoes. (mn-jt)
1975  MG's Drummer Murdered. Al Jackson drummer with seminal house band at Stax Records, Booker T. and The MGs (MG stood for Memphis Group), and thus the rock-steady rhythm behind hits by Otis Redding, Sam & Dave, and other great soul stars of the 1960s, was shot and killed when he confronted an intruder at his Memphis home. Jackson was 39 years old. (mn-jt)
1979 Lisa Maffia (singer) born in London.  ( 'x' So solid Crew) (nationmaster)
1981 Jamelia (Davis) (uk singer) born. (nationmaster)
1983  Howard Hewett's 26th birthday and also the date when the band Shalamar split. (mn-jt)
1998  Birmingham Council alongside a variety of community groups run the first Black History Month. Using museums; community centres; schools; colleges; play centres; places of worship and art centres. (mn)

2nd. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  EDUCATION:
133: LANGSTON HUGHES (1902-1967)
1800  Nat Turner, Anti-slavery revolutionist born a slave in Virginia, USA. His father was a successful runaway slave, and Turner himself ran-away in 1821, but returned after a month, explaining his religious convictions had persuaded him to do so. On 22nd. August 1821 Turner and 60-80 African-American slaves launched a reign of terror in Virginia, killing between 57 and 65 whites, starting with The Travis family, turner's masters. State militias responded to the situated by 24th August Turner's revolt had been suppressed, he was hanged on 11th. November, 1831. Sixteen fellow rebels were also executed. The event was later fictionalized in William Styron's The Confessions Of Nat Turner (1967). (mn-ra)
1920  Jim Brewer, aka Blind Jim Brewer, street singer, born. Brookhaven, Miss, USA. Blues singer and guitarist (real name James Brewer), moved to Chicago in the 1940s spending the latter part of his life busking and performing both blues and religious songs at blues and folk festivals, on Chicago’s Maxwell Street and other venues  (died June 3, 1988, Chicago, Ill, USA. (mn-rs)
1953  Vanessa Bell Armstrong, gospel singer born, Detroit, MI. With a style reminiscent of Aretha Franklin, soulful Vanessa Bell Armstrong has been belting out R&B-flavored contemporary gospel since the '80s. A native of Detroit and mother of five, she got her start working with Dr. Mattie Moss Clark. She has since gone on to work in both gospel and secular music. She did the theme song for the television series Amen, where her links to Rev. Al Green (and ultimately to Rev. Claude Jeter) were evident. She's recorded urban contemporary ballads and lyrically neutral material for Jive, and done gospel for Muscle Shoals Sound Gospel and Onyx, subsidiaries of Malaco. Albums include the slickly produced Something on the Inside (1993) and The Secret Is Out (1995). Three years later, she released her first live album, Desire of My Heart: Live; a best-of collection appeared in 1999. ~ Bil Carpenter and Ron Wynn, All Music Guide (mn-ts)
1956  Freddie Jackson soul singer born in Harlem, New York, USA.To urban contemporary listeners, Freddie Jackson was one of the biggest stars of the latter half of the '80s, dominating the R&B charts seemingly at will. Jackson's forte was sophisticated, romantic soul ballads aimed at adult audiences, but he was also capable of tackling urban contemporary dance fare and even the occasional jazz tune. Yet unlike many of his peers -- Luther Vandross, Anita Baker, Peabo Bryson, etc. -- Jackson never managed to cross over to the pop charts, where none of his R&B smashes even breached the Top Ten. As new trends like hip-hop altered the urban contemporary landscape, Jackson gradually faded from view during the '90s.   (mn)
1958  The Republic of Guinea gains independence under Sekou Toure.
1964  Michell Anthony Thomas, 6'2", 13.0 footballer born in Luton, England. International Honours: E: B-1; U21-3; Yth. West Ham United paid £525,000 for him on 7/8/91. (bh-mn)
1965  Bishop Harold Robert Perry of Lake Charles, La., is named auxiliary  Bishop of New Orleans by Pope Paul VI. (tr-iokts)
1969  Ray (Raymond) George Wallace, 5'6", 11.4 footballer born in Greenwich, England. International Honours: E: U21-4. (bh-mn)
2006  Tamara Dobson, the tall, stunning model-turned-actress who portrayed a strong female role as Cleopatra Jones in two "blaxploitation" films, has died. Dobson, 59, died Monday of complications from pneumonia and multiple sclerosis at the Keswick Multi-Care Center, where she had lived for the past two years, her publicist said. At 6 feet, 2 inches tall, Dobson was striking as the kung-fu fighting government agent Cleopatra Jones in 1973. She reprised the role in 1975's "Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold." "She was not afraid to start a trend," said her brother, Peter Dobson, of Houston. "She designed a lot of the clothing that so many women emulated."  Dobson also appeared in "Come Back, Charleston Blue," "Norman, Is That You?" "Murder at the World Series" and "Chained Heat." She had TV roles in the early 1980s in "Jason of Star Command" and "Buck Rogers in the 25th Century." Dobson lived most of her adult life in New York, her family said. She was diagnosed six years ago with multiple sclerosis. (blackenterpises.com)

3rd. OCTOBER      

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  EDUCATION:
134: GWENDOLYN BROOKS (1917-    )
1897  Josephine Riley Matthews born. (tr-bl)
1904  Mary McLeod Bethune opens her own school in Florida with only $1.50. Her life-long achievements were recognized by the US nation in 1974 when the Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. This bronze monument was the first statue of a woman and of an African-American to be erected on national park ground in the nation's capital. (mn-ss)
1941  Chubby Checker 60's singer, best remembered for Let's twist again, born Ernest Evans. Chubby Checker was the unrivaled king of the rock & roll dance craze; although most of the dances his records promoted -- the Pony, "the Fly," and the Hucklebuck, to cite just three -- have long since faded into obscurity, his most famous hit, "The Twist," remains the yardstick against which all subsequent dancefloor phenomena are measured. Born Ernest Evans on October 3, 1941, in Philadelphia, he worked in a local poultry shop while in high school, and while on the job often entertained customers by singing and cracking jokes. His workplace antics helped win an audition with the local Cameo-Parkway label, who signed the fledgling singer in 1959; at the suggestion of no less than Dick Clark's wife, the portly youth was re-christened Chubby Checker, the name a sly reference to Fats Domino.  (mn-jt)
1950  Ronnie Laws jazz keyboard player born. The younger brother of Hubert Laws, Ronnie Laws has a nice soulful sound on tenor, but has never seriously pursued playing jazz. Throughout his career, which includes early-'70s gigs with Quincy Jones, his brother, Ramsey Lewis, and Earth, Wind & Fire, Laws has essentially been an R&B player. He has led his own albums since 1975, but recorded very little of interest to the jazz world, although he is often listed on Billboard's contemporary jazz chart. ~ Scott Yanow, All Music Guide (mn-jt)
1953  Billy Branch, harmonica player, born Great Lakes, Ill, USA. If blues harmonica has a long-term future on the Chicago circuit, Billy Branch will likely play a leading role in shaping its direction. Educator as well as musician, Branch has led the Sons of the Blues, his skin-tight quartet, since the late '70s. Despite numerous personnel changes, the SOBs have never wavered in their dedication to pure, unadulterated Chicago blues. Although he was born just north of the Windy City, Branch grew up in Los Angeles, only to return to Chicago in 1969 to attend the University of Illinois. Spurred on by the entrancing riffs of mouth-organ masters Carey Bell, Big Walter Horton, and Junior Wells, Branch began to make a name for himself. He replaced Bell in Willie Dixon's Chicago Blues All-Stars, recording with the prolific legend and touring extensively. The SOBs really were dominated by second-generation talent at the start -- guitarist Lurrie Bell was Carey Bell's son, while bassist Freddie Dixon was the offspring of Willie Dixon. They contributed three tunes to Alligator's first batch of Living Chicago Blues anthologies in 1978. The SOBs waxed Where's My Money?, their Red Beans Records LP, in 1984; by then, personnel included guitarist Carlos Johnson, bassist J.W. Williams, and drummer Moses Rutues. Shortly after that album was completed, guitarist Carl Weathersby was installed as co-frontman, where he remains (as does Rutues; bass is now handled by Nick Charles). Other than co-headlining Alligator's 1990 summit meeting Harp Attack! with fellow harp masters Junior Wells, Carey Bell, and James Cotton, Branch largely busied himself with extensive sideman work (he's first-call session harpist around the Windy City) and teaching an innovative "Blues in the Schools" program until 1995. Verve issued his The Blues Keep Following Me Around, an impressive showcase for his gravelly vocals and spellbinding harp. Satisfy Me followed in 1999. Chicago's Young Blues Generation was issued on Evidence in 2001. ~ Bill Dahl, All Music Guide   (mn-rs)
1979  The Mc Ceod (entertainment) group is established in London.
1989  Art Shell becomes the first African American coach of a National Football team.
1992  Nigel Ben wins WBC Super Middleweight Champion title in fight against  M. Galvano.
1995  12 jurors find O.J. Simpson not guilty of double murder.

4th. OCTOBER        

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT   EDUCATION:
135: ARNA BONTEMPS (1902-1973)
Independence Day - The Kingdom of Lesotho
1847  The first African American daily newspaper, the 'New Orleans Tribune', is founded.
1913  Carrie Allen McCray was born on this date in 1913. She is an African-American writer. Born in Lynchburg, Virginia, she attended the Virginia Seminary Primary School. Her father, William Patterson Allen, was a lawyer; her mother, Mary Rice Hayes Allen, was a college teacher. As the ninth of ten children, McCray’s Virginia childhood had warmth with a close community. When she was seven, her family moved to Montclair, New Jersey where she attended Spaulding Elementary School, Hillside Junior High, and Montclair High School. She received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Talladega College in 1935 and her master’s degree in social work from New York University in 1955. In 1940, McCray married Winfield Scott Young, which ended in divorce in 1945. She did marry a second time to John H McCray. James Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes, among others, were guests in the Allen home, as were more unusual and less constrained figures that also came into the Allen’s’ lives. The tensions of race and gender that defined McCray’s early life continued into her adult years. Her list of writings include Ajös Means Goodbye, 1966. Other published works by McCray are The Black Woman and Family Roles (1980). Her poems have also appeared in Ms. Magazine, The River Styx, Gloria Steinem’s book; Moving Beyond Words, The Crimson Edge: Older Women Writing, The South Carolina Collection, and The Squaw Review. Her first person memoir, Freedom’s Child: The Life of a Confederate General’s Black Daughter was published in 1998. Although she began to take her writing seriously at the age of 73, McCray makes it clear that only very recently has she been able to think of herself as writer in a professional sense. Carrie Allen McCray has made her home in Columbia, South Carolina since 1986. (aareg)
1943  H. Rap Brown, chairman of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), is born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He took part in voter registration drives in Mississippi in 1964 and became the chairman of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee in 1967. He was an advocate of black power and violent confrontations with white racists. In 1968 he was charged with inciting a riot in Maryland and was then convicted of carrying a gun between states. In 1971 he was convicted and sentenced for armed robbery and assault. He was released from prison in 1976. Today he's a lecturer at Atlanta university. (mm-ss-tr-iokts-dr)
1944   Patti LaBelle. vocals, b. Philadelphia, PA, USA. (nfo.net)
1958   Afrika Bambaataa, (hip hop) vocals, b. New York (Bronx), NY, USA. (nfo.net)
1967   UK's BBC Radio 1 starts with ex-pirate DJ Tony Blackburn. It was supposed to be the start of a new age in radio, even when local bbc/commercial radio came about 5 years later, black music was rarely played on either. Basicly 40 years of shit apart from the late John Peel's small out-put. (mn)
2000  Craig David and Jamelia win Mobo Awards in London. Jamelia David, 19 years old and from Smethwick wins Best Video Award for her debut single 'Money' and  Craig David scooped three awards, Best Newcomer, Best R&B Act, and  Best Single for 'Fill Me In'. (mn)

5th. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT THEATRE:  
136:  IRA ALDRIDGE (1805-1867)
1848  George B. Vashion, first African American lawyer in the state of New York, dies in Rodney, Miss., USA. (tr-iokts)
1872  Booker T. Washington leaves Malden, W.V. to enter Hampton Institute.
1886  Black Invention: Foot Power Hammer, Minnis Headen. (sc)
1897  Black Invention: Convertible Settee and Bed, J. H. Evans. (sc)
1929  Autherine Lucy Foster born, the first black student at the University of Alabama in 1952 before riots broke out, expelled until '88.(tr-bl)
1932  Yvonne Burke, congresswoman, born in USA. (tr-iokts)
1942  Richard Street singer/Temptation member born in Detroit USA. He joined the Temp's early in 1971 when Paul Williams's health was ailing, he had sung in the Distants some years earlier. (mn)
1943  Roy Book Binder, guitarist/storyteller, born, New York. An often stirring folk/blues guitarist and vocalist, Roy Book Binder's been playing country blues since the mid-'60s, when he began recording for Blue Goose. Greatly influenced by Rev. Gary Davis and Pink Anderson, Book Binder played in East Coast coffeehouses in the early '60s, then began accompanying Rev. Davis on tours in the mid-'60s. He also played with Larry Johnson, Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup and Homesick James. Besides constant concerts and tours, Book Binder's made additional recordings for Blue Goose, as well as Adelphi and Rounder. Book Binder began playing blues guitar while he was enlisted in the navy. Following his discharge from the military, he enrolled in Rhode Island Junior College. After a brief spell there, he attended New York's New School for Social Research. Book Binder quit school in 1967, after he met the Rev. Gary Davis. Roy became Davis' chauffeur, during which he took extensive lessons from the blind guitarist. Book Binder started his recording career slowly, cutting some singles for Kicking Mule and Blue Goose in 1968. In 1969, he toured England with Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup and Homesick James. The following year, he released his first album, Travelin' Man, on Adelphi. After the release of Travelin' Man, he began touring America extensively. Book Binder began playing with fiddler Fats Kaplin in 1973, recording Git Fiddle Shuffle the same year. Roy and Fats were a duo for three years, playing numerous concerts and recording a second album, Ragtime Millionaire in 1976. Following the release of Ragtime Millionaire, the duo stopped performing together and Book Binder bought a motor home, which became his permanent residence. Live performances became his primary concern after the release of Goin' Back to Tampa in 1979. For nearly ten years, he toured the country in the motor home, driving himself from club to club, hitting numerous coffeehouses and festivals along the way.  (mn-rc)
1969  Eric Benet' (Ben-ay), soul singer, born, Milwaukee, WI, USA. He is one of the true finds of 1996-97. After releasing a miserably promoted sef-titled album with his band Benet (EMI, 1992 out of print), his potential shines on his debut solo album True to Myself. Following in the footsteps of Motown artists and even Luther Vandross and Seal, Benet's knack is for passionate, romantic R&B ballads, but he's just as successful at showing off his funk side. (mn-cf)
1992  Eddie Kendricks soul singer dies. He was a founder member with the Primes in the late 50s, an R&B vocal group that moved to Detroit in 1960 and formed the basis of the Temptations. Eddie's voice was a key part of hit records: The way you do the things you do; Get ready; and Just my Imagination. He died of lung cancer after already having his right lung removed the previous your. (mn-br-cl) 
2016 [Rod Temperton] dies. Born 9-10-47 Rodney Lynn "Rod" Temperton was an English songwriter, record producer, Heatwave member, and musician from Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire, England. He wrote many of the songs on the best selling album of all time by Michael Jackson (Thriller) also remembered for the Heatwave hit  and stunning love song 'Always & Forever in 1976. (mn)

6th. OCTOBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  
137: CHARLES GILPIN (1878-1930)  
1896  Black Invention: the Riding Saddle, W.D. Davis patents this.
1917  Fannie Lou Hamer, Civil Rights Activist, is born near Ruleville, Mississippi, USA. The youngest of 20 children born to a family of sharecroppers. Despite her lack of formal education, she entered the civil rights movement in the 1960s and was one of the founders of the interracial Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which challenged white supremacy in Mississippi. In 1964 she ran for Congress on the MFDP "Freedom Ballot," received more votes than her white opponent. (mn-ss)
1942  Millie Small reggae singer born Millicent Smith in Clarenden, Jamaica. Popular for her hit My Boy Lollipop (1964), a single that sold 5 million copies. Ernest Ranglin produced and played guitar on it. (mn-sb/pd)
1948  Delroy Wilson, reggae singer, born. Like Dennis Brown and Freddie  McGregor, Delroy Wilson was barely out of short trousers when he recorded his first record for Coxone Dodd's Studio One label. His first hit, 'Joe Liges' (1963), was written by Lee Perry, who at the time was working as a talent-spotter, songwriter and singer for Dodd; the track was a lyrical attack on former Dodd employee and now rival, Prince Buster. Despite being one of the best singers Jamaica has ever produced, Wilson was rarely able to consolidate the success that came his way; nevertheless, he remained much loved and respected, but sorely underused and, outside of reggae circles, underrated performer.  (jah-b-cl-mn)  PCRL DJ Tony Roots adds: "Delroy was born at University Hospital, West Indies and will best remembered for songs like Dancing Mood; Have Some Mercy and I'm Still Waiting. (Dies March 6, 1995)(tr-gleaner)
1949  Thomas Mc Clary member of the Commodores born. Renowned for the R&B hits "Just to Be Close to You," "Easy," and "Brickhouse," to name but a few, the Commodores were one of the top bands during their long tenure at Motown. The group is credited with seven number one songs and a host of other Top Ten hits on the Billboard charts, and their vast catalog includes more than 50 albums.   (mn-jt)
1949  Bobby Farrell singer with Boney M, born. Although they never had much success in America, the Euro-disco group Boney M. was a European phenomenon during the '70s. After German record producer Frank Farian (born in 1942) recorded the single "Baby Do You Wanna Bump?" (which was successful in Holland and Belgium), he created Boney M to support the song, bringing in four West Indian vocalists who had been working as session singers in Germany -- Marcia Barrett (born on October 14, 1948, St. Catherines, Jamaica), Liz Mitchell (born on July 12, 1952, Clarendon, Jamaica), Maizie Williams (born on March 25, 1951, Monserrat, West Indies), and Bobby Farrell (born on October 6, 1949, Aruba, West Indies). "Daddy Cool" reached the U.K. Top Ten in February 1977, followed in April by a remake of Bobby Hebb's "Sunny." In July, "Ma Baker" just missed the U.K. number one spot, and "Belfast" hit the Top Ten in December. In 1978, Boney M. was at the height of their popularity with "Rivers of Babylon"/"Brown Girl in the Ring," which became the second-biggest selling single in U.K. chart history. "Rivers of Babylon" also was Boney M.'s only U.S. Top 40 hit. Boney M's album, Nightflight to Venus, also topped the U.K. charts. In October 1978, "Rasputin" became another U.K. Top Ten hit, followed by the seasonal chart-topper "Mary's Boy Child"/"Oh My Lord," which became the fifth-biggest selling single in U.K. history. In March 1979, "Painter Man" hit the U.K. Top Ten, followed in May by "Hooray! Hooray! It's a Holi-Holiday." In September, the album Oceans of Fantasy hit number one. Their music continues to sell well in Europe, with a compilation hitting the U.K. Top Ten in 1994. Farian went on to create the late-'80s dance sensation Milli Vanilli. ~ Stephen Thomas Erlewine, All Music Guide  (mn-jt)
1981  Anwar Sadat, president of Egypt, assassinated.

7th. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT THEATRE:  
138: BERT WILLIAMS (1878-1922)  
1890  Black Invention: Safety Gate for Bridges, Humphrey Reynolds. (sc)
1887  Sargent Johnson, sculptor, is born. Sargent Claude Johnson was from Boston, Massachusetts, his father, Anderson was Swedish and his mother Lizzie Jackson was Cherokee and Negro. The marriage was stormy due to racial problems and illness. There were six children, Sargent being the third child. Some of the Johnson children, due to color or appearance, were accepted as Indians or Caucasians and lived their lives as such. He, however, chose to live as a black throughout his life.   (tr-iokts)
1897  Elijah Poole 'Honourable' Muhammad, founder of the Black Muslims, becomes most influential leader, born in Sandersville, Georgia, USA. Born to former slaves and sharecroppers. About 1930 he joined the Nation of Islam, founded and led by W.D. Fard, who became Pool's spiritual leader. After Fard's disappearance in 1934 Pool emerged as Elijah Muhammad, the divine leader of the Nation of Islam. Many of his teachings live on in Minister Louis Farrakhan's Final Call to  Islam, a break away group. (dies 1975) (mn-ss)
1951  Tata Vega singer born Cramen Rose Vega in Queens, NY, USA. 'Tata' was a nickname given to her  by her parents while growing up in Long Island, New York. In 1976, after she had moved to Angeles, Berry Gordy signed her to the Tamla label (via Motown) where her albums were Full Speed Ahead (1976), Totally Tata (1977), Try My Love (1978), including 'Get It Up For Love' (UK Top 75) More recently she has sung backgrounds for Carl Anderson and gospel with Andre' Crouch (featured lead vocalist on 'Oh, It is Jesus', 1987). (mn-cl)
1962  Scrapper Blackwell, urban blues guitarist, dies, In, USA. Scrapper Blackwell ranks with LONNIE JOHNSON as one of the earliest and most influential urban blues guitarists. His single string Style of playing helped bridge the gap between roughed up rural blues and the slicker sounds of urban blues. Blackwell and his piano playing partner, LEROY CARR, also popularized blues. Blackwell and his piano playing partner, LEROY CARR, also popularized guitar piano blues duets in the late 1920s and 1930s. Together they made a made a number of superlative recordings, including 'How Long How Long Blues' and 'My Own Lonesome Blues," and set the standards by which other guitar piano duets would be judged. Blackwe11 was on the verge of a comeback when he was shot to death in Indianapolis in 1962.(mn-rs)
1941  Tony Sylvester with Main Ingredient born Enrique Sylvester. Formed in New York, Donald McPherson, Tony Sylvester and Luther Simmons first sang together as The Poets in he '50s. Their initial recordings were for the Red Bird label and they scored their first American success with 'She Blew A Good Thing' in 1966. Becoming The Main ingredient, they recorded a series of singles through to 1971, when Donald died (of leukaemia) and was replaced by Cuba Gooding. In 1972 they signed to RCA and scored Further American chart success with 'Everybody Plays The Fool'. They are still recoding today. (mn-jt) 
1968  Toni Braxton, soul singer born at Severn, Maryland, USA. Braxton with her four sisters, was signed with Arista Records in 1990 as the Braxtons. It was their The Good Life single which brought them attention of producers L.A. & Babyface who provided her with solo successes. (mn-cl)
1995  [Iris Norton] dies from cancer.

8th. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT   THEATRE:
139: RICHARD B.HARRISON (1864-1935)   
1820  Henri Chrosophe king of Haiti dies, Henri along with Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jacques were all freedom fighters from Spanish/French slavery. (mn-ra)
1870   Black Invention: Improvement in Wagons, John W. West. (sc)
1919 Hal Singer born Tulsa, Oklahoma. Tenor Saxophonist. One of the originators of the honking tenor sax style. Corn Bread was #1 Juke Box/Best Seller in 1948. Released track Malcome X in 1970. (mn-jw)
1941  Jesse Jackson, civil rights leader is born in Greenville, He runs for President of USA in 1994 and 1988. Once an aide to Martin Luther King, Jr., Jesse Jackson has been a political activist and public figure since the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Jackson, a Baptist minister, is the founder of the non-profit organization PUSH (People United to Save Humanity). He has several times been an unofficial U.S. envoy in diplomatic missions; in 1999 he helped secure the release of three American military prisoners from Yugoslavia. He made unsuccessful runs for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 1984 and 1988, losing to Walter Mondale in 1984 and to Michael Dukakis in 1988. Both elections were ultimately won by Republican candidates: Ronald Reagan (1984) and George Bush Sr. (1988). Jackson's son, Jesse Jr., was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1994... In January of 2001, the elder Jackson admitted to fathering a child born out of wedlock in 1999 after an affair with a worker at the Washington PUSH offices. (mn-answers.com)
1944  Joshie Jo Armstead, soul singer born Yazoo City, Mississippi, USA. A former member of the Iketes, she sang on the 1962 US Top 20 pop hit I'm Blue (the Gong Gong Song),. She began her solo career under the name Dina Johnson and she subsequently formed a partnership with Ashford & Simpson for whom she penned Let's Go Get Stoned for Ray Charles. (mn-cl)
1945  Vanburn Alonza Holder, cricket umpire, ex-Warwickshire player born in Barbados. County debut: 1968; County cap: 1970; Test debut: 1969; Tests: 40. One of only two black umpires at the moment, the other being John Holder. (cm-mn)
1950  Robert 'Kool' Bell of band Kool & Gang born. Formed as a jazz ensemble in the mid-'60s, Kool & the Gang became one of the most inspired and influential funk units during the '70s, and one of the most popular R&B groups of the '80s after their breakout hit "Celebration" in 1979. Just as funky as James Brown or Parliament (and sampled almost as frequently), Kool & the Gang relied on their jazz backgrounds and long friendship to form a tightly knit group with the interplay and improvisation of a jazz outfit, plus the energy and spark of a band with equal ties to soul, R&B, and funk. Robert "Kool" Bell and his brother Ronald (or Khalis Bayyan) grew up in Jersey City, NJ, and picked up the music bug from their father. A professional boxer, he was also a serious jazz lover and a close friend of Thelonious Monk.  (mn-jt)
1970  DJ Fuze, conceptual funk rapper with Digital Underground, from Syracuse, New York; Berkeley, California, USA, real name David Elliot born. (mn-ms)
2010 Albertina Walker dies. b. Albertina Walker, 29th August 1929, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. d. 8th October 2010, RML Specialty Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. The 'Queen Of Gospel Music', Albertina Walker has died. She was 81. Albertina was was rushed to the RML Specialty Hospital hospital in Chicago, on the 29th of August, her 81st birthday, having long suffered from emphysema. She took the time to issued a statement thanking all those praying for her. Albertina was singing at the age of 4, participating in the West Point Baptist Church choir in 1932. Greatly influenced by Mahalia Jackson, she was taken under her wing during her teenage years, and taken on tour. In 1951, she formed the group called The Caravans, whose line-up included singers from The Robert Anderson Singers (including Ora Lee Hopkins Samson, Elyse Yancey and Nellie Grace Daniels), and were known on the circuit, as the career makers. The group line-up varied across the years, and at various times included the likes of James Cleveland, Bessie Griffin, Shirley Caesar, Dorothy Norwood, Inez Andrews, Loleatta Holloway, Cassietta George, and Delores Washington. The Caravans went their separate ways in the late 1960's. The late Reverend James Cleveland and Rev. Jesse L. Jackson,Sr., gave her the name 'the Queen Of Gospel Music' during the early 1970's. In the mid 1970's, she signed various imprints including Savoy Records, Benson Records, Word Records, A&M Records, along with many other labels. Albertina recorded her first solo release entitled 'Put A Little Love In Your Heart' in 1975, following which she recorded with the Reverend James Cleveland. Her releases included 'Please Be Patient with Me', 'I Can Go to God in Prayer', 'Work on Me', 'Joy Will Come', and 'I Won’t Be Back'. Since 1975, Albertina ecorded over 60 albums and has sung for United States Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton, and also for the South African President, Nelson Mandela. In 1995, she collaborated with Thelma Houston, CeCe Peniston, Phoebe Snow, recording 'Good News In Hard Times', under the group name of The Sisters of Glory. President Bush honoured Albertina for her contribution to Gospel Music on the 31st of May 2002, the ceremony held at the White House declaring the month of June as Black Music Month. In 2006, she recorded a reunion album with the Caravans, entitled 'Paved The Way', whose line-up featured Dorothy Norwood, Inez Andrews, and Delores Washington. The album was nominated for a Grammy, Dove, Soul Train Music Award and two Stellar Awards. During her lifetime, Albertina lent her support to various charitable causes including The United Negro College Fund, The American Cancer Society, The National Council of Negro Women, The Nation of Islam's 'Million Family' March, One Voice 'A Fight Against AIDS', The NAACP and Operation Push. She also appearred on 'The Oprah Winfrey Show', 'Good Morning America', and 'The Travis Smiley Show'. (soulwalking)

9th. OCTOBER

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  THEATRE:
140: FRANK SILVERA (1914-1970)   
1806  Benjamin Banneker, mathematician and astronomer, dies in Ellicott City, Md., USA. Although he spent nearly his entire life on a farm, Banneker had an important influence on how African-Americans were viewed during the Federalist and Jeffersonian periods of American history. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, Banneker was a child of a free black father. He had little formal education, but he became literate and read widly. At the age of 21 he built a clock with every part made of wood - it operated for over 40 years. (tr-iokts-ss)
1929  Earnest "Dutch" Morial, first black mayor of New Orleans, born their.
1942  O.V. Wright soul singer born Overton Vertis Wright in Memphis. One of deep soul's most impressive stylists, his first recordings were in the gospel tradition and it was while a member of the Harmony Echoes that he became acquainted with Roosevelt Jamison. This aspiring songwriter penned the singer's debut, That's How Strong My Love Is, impassioned ballad covered later by Otis Redding and the Rolling Stones. (Dies November 16, 1980, Mobile, Ala., USA.) (mn-cl)
1957  Ini Kamoze, reggae artiste born, Port Maria, St. Mary, Jamaica, West Indies. For Ini Kamoze, the road to success has been arduous and he has undergone many substantial changes musically and physically since he burst onto the music scene in 1983 with his highly successful eponymous debut album for Island. Known as "The Hotstepper," Kamoze advocates change through what he calls "intelligent and constructive militancy" rather than random acts of violence. Kamoze made his recording debut in the early '80s with a 12" single "Trouble You a Trouble Me" on Taxi and found immediate success. He then began touring as part of the Taxi Connection International Tour with Yellowman and Half Pint. During this time, Kamoze was 6' tall, reed thin and appeared too frail to contain his powerful stage presence. He followed up his first album success with Pirate, but the recording received mixed reactions and wasn't as successful. Kamoze then retaliated with several hit singles recorded on his Slekta label. One of the biggest hits from this period was "Shocking Out" which was eventually picked up by the RAS label in 1988. In 1985, Kamoze had greater success with Settle with Me, which produced such hits as "C all the Police" and "Taxi with Me." By 1988, Kamoze's successes became intermittent and his career erratic. Kamoze suddenly disappeared from the music scene. He returned with a new, more aggressive image in 1994, signing to Sony and exploded back into the charts with "Here Comes the Hotstepper." The song made its debut on the compilation reggae album Stir It Up from Columbia, and then showed up on the soundtrack of Robert Altman's feature film Pret-A-Porter.(mn-cl)
1962  Independence Day-Republic of Uganda. Independence from Great Britain.
1963  Mikey General, reggae artist born, Michael Taylor, London, England.One of Regga's most exciting talents is conscious vocalist Mikey General. His high tenor voice, like a warm breeze over sands, carries a message of faith and optimism to the world. His unyielding devotion and his genuine sincerity sets this Jamaican snger apart from the rest.Mikey General, long known for his association with Luciano, has spent two decades honing his craft navigating the upper echelon of producers and studios in the industry, both in the United Kingdom and Jamaica. British-born Jamaican Mikey General, born Michael Taylor, moved back to Jamaica at age two and not long after, began to imitate songs on the radio and television, His public recognition began when he sung in the school and church choirs. In his teenage years, he was already voicing on large Kingston sound systems like Killamanjaro and Virgo Sounds. At sixteen, he recorded his first song for sound system owner Ruddy Silence. Mikey returned to Britian in 1982 and continued to voice on top sounds- only this time it was the British sounds like Coxone International and Saxon. The latter gave him a taste of the road, touring Europe in 1984 along with Smiley Culture, Papa Livi and Maxi Priest. 1985 was a big year when the DubVendor produced tracks "Dancehall Vibes" hit ..1 on the trend-setting New Musical Express chart and ..2 on the Echoes chart. Accolades continued as Echoes' readers awarded Mikey "Newcomer of the year,"  After ten years in England, Mikey's spirituality was becoming front and center in his life and he moved back to Jamaica.the key moment came when he met Luciano for the first time at Castro Brown's New Name Studio,"I noticed the godliness in his movements," stated Mikey, in 1993,the two friends became mainstays in Phillip "Fatis" Burrell's Xterminator Crew which toured America and Europe "exterminating slackness in reggae music," Mikey grew his dreadlocks, adopt a true and natural lifestyle,and watch things fall into place,with the Xterminator Crew, Mikey released two albums within two years, "Sinners," and "I Am Just A Rastaman" on the British Jetstar Records. He also opened for Luciano and Sizzla on tour in the mid-1990s. It reached time for Mikey and Luciano to branch off from the XterminatorCrew, and in 1998, they formed Jah Messenjah Productions and Qubala First Music with the aim "to provide p[eople with spiritual uplifting music in these times of degradation." With hard work the two singers built a nice home base, and Mikey released the full-length "Spiritual Revolution" on their own Qubala label. John Marcus of Echoes UK dubbed it the Album of the year. "Exalt Jah," Mikey's follow-up to "Spiritual Revolution" was released in 2003 on Stone Tiger Entertainment and showcased a mature and confident Mikey General whose lyrics reflect his commitment and deep faith in Jah. Between recording, Mikey opened for Luciano on his "New Day" tour, followed by a solo club tour of the United States. The industry giant VP Records, got hold of mikey's next album, "Red Green and Gold," and through strong distribution took Mikey's music to another level. The well-received album featured tracks "He That Keepeth Isreal," and "Joy," which reflect Mikey's belief that "music should reflect the life we live! (myspace)l

10th. OCTOBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT THEATRE:  
141: CANADA LEE (1907-1951)   
1897  Pricilla L. Williams, born. (tr-bl)
1897  Black Invention: Car Coupling Device, Andrew J. Beard. (sc)
1899  Black Invention: luggage carrier, J.W. Butts receives patent.
1899  Black Invention: Bicycle Frame, Isaac R. Johnson. (sc)
1901  Fredrick Douglas Patterson, founder of the United Negro College Fund, is born. (tr-iokts)
1914  Ivory Joe Hunter, singer born in Wiergate/Kirbyville, Texas, USA. Although Hunter was a well known figure in Texas through his radio shows, it was not until the 40s, when he moved to the west coast, that his career flourished. He established his own record companies, Ivory & Pacific, the later of which provided an outlet for his first R&B chart topper, Pretty Mama Blues (Dies from lung cancer November 8, 1974, Memphis, Tenn, USA). (mn-rs)
1926  Oscar Brown Jnr., singer/songwriter born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The first of his compositions to be published was Brown Baby sung by Mahalia Jackson. In 1961 his stage production Kicks and Company was performed in Chicago. Dies after operation on spine, May 29th 2005. (Billboard) 1
1946  Ben Vereen, singer/entertainer is born. Ben acted as Chicken George in the TV series 'Roots' in 1977, it was a massive success. Shown months later in the UK. (tr-iokts)
2010 Solomn Burke dies. Born James Solomon MacDonald, 21st March 1940, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. d. 10th October 2010, Schipol Airport, Amstersdam, Netherlands.Solomon Burke has died. He was 70. Reports state that Solomon died at Amsterdam's Schiphol airport, as he arrived for a gig with the Dutch group De Dijk at the Paradiso Club in the City on Tuesday. Solomon penned the classic song 'Everybody Needs Somebody to Love', which featured in the movie 'The Blues Brothers'. Solomon Burke was born in Philadelphia, becoming a preacher and hosted a gospel radio show during his lifetime. In the early 1960s, he signed with Ahmet Ertegun's Atlantic Records and recorded his first hit record 'Just Out Of Reach'. In 1962, he released 'Cry To Me', which was utilised as part of the film 'Dirty Dancing'. Solomon's 1964 song, 'Everybody Needs Somebody to Love', was later recorded by various artists including The Rolling Stones and Wilson Pickett, and later became internationally famous following the version recorded by Dan Ackroyd and John Belushi in the 1980 film 'The Blues Brothers'. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001 and won a Grammy in 2003. Solomon is survived by 21 children and 90 grandchildren. (soulwalking)

11th. OCTOBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT EDUCATION:  
142: ETHEL WATERS (1900-1977)
1865  Paul Bogle, Jamaican national hero leads a successful protest march to the Morant Bay Courthouse. Paul Bogle was a Deacon of the Native Baptist Church in Stony Gut, St. Thomas, Jamaica. His belief in the teachings of the Bible inspired him to become involved in the peoples' struggle for justice. Paul Bogle spent much of his time educating and training the members of his congregation, and is credited with initiating the so-called Morant Bay Rebellion in 1865. Edward Eyre, the then Governor of Jamaica, offered a £2,000 reward for the capture of Paul Bogle for his alleged role in the unrest at Morant Bay.  (George W. Gordon hanged)
1867  Black Invention: Elevator, Alexander Miles. (sc)
1887  Black Invention: Telephone System/Apparatus, Granville T. Woods. (sc)
1917  Thelonius Monk, jazz musician is born. One of the century's outstanding composers. Round Midnight is probably the most recorded jazz song of all time. His unique ability to weld intricate, surprising harmonic shifts and rhythmic quirks into appealing, funky riffs means that something special happens when they are played.(Dies February 17, 1982) (mn-cl)
1919  Art Blakey, jazz musician is born in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. (Dies October 16, 1990). (mn-jt)
1950  Andrew Woodfolk member of soul group Earth Wind and Fire born. (mn-jt)
1970  MC Lyte, two-sided storyteller rapper from Queens, Brooklyn, USA, real name Lana Moorer is born. (mn-ms)

12th. OCTOBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  EDUCATION:
143: KATHERINE DUNHAM (1910-   )
Independence Day - Equatorial Guinea.
1925  Xavier University, America's only black Catholic college, founded in New Orleans, La., USA.
1929  Nappy Brown born Napoleon Brown Culp in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. Started as a gospel singer and moved into R&B in 1954 when he signed with Savoy Records. (mn-jt)
1932  Dick Gregory, comedian and civil rights activist, is born in New Orleans, Mo., USA.  In 1966 he ran for Mayor of Chicago and in 1968 for president of the United States. He continues to speak on a wide variety of social and political issues. (mm-ss-tr-iokts)
1942  Melvin Franklin, soul singer and member of The Temptations born David English in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. (Dies Feb 23, 1995, LA, USA)
1935  Sam Moore, soul singer with Sam & Dave, born in Miami, Florida, USA. They first performed together in 1961, but it was not until Jerry Wexler signed them to Atlantic Records that their talents blossomed.For political reasons they appeared on Stax Records, where You Don't Know Like I Know, Hold On I'm Commin' (both 1966), Soul Man (1967)and I thank you (1968) were some of their finest moments.  (mn-cl)
1979  Daniel (Danny) Leon Cadamarteri, 5'7", 11.12 footballer born in Bradford, England. International Honours: E: Yth. (bh-mn)

13th. OCTOBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  EDUCATION ENDS:
144: SIDNEY POITIER (1927-     )  
1831  Black Invention: grain harvester reaper, Jo Anderson, a slave, helps invent it.
1902  Arna Bontemps, poet and librarian, born in Alexandria, Va., USA. This leading figure in the Harlem Renaissance, a novelist and a close friend of Langston Hughes, was raised in California. From 1943 until 1963 he was the librarian at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennasee, a secure position that allowed him write. His novels include God Sends Sunday (1931), which went on Broadway as the musical Saint Louis Woman (1946) and the Story Of The Negro (1948). (Dies 1973) (mm-tr-ss-iokts)
1914  Black Invention: Breathing Device (gas mask), Garratt Morgan. (sc)
1938  Shirley Ceasar, gospel singer, born, Durham, NC, USA. (mn-nc)
1947  Dorothy Moore, soul singer born in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. She started singing when she founded the all-female group the Poppies with Columbia Records in the 60s but with no chart success. She's best remembered for her solo hit Misty Blue in 1976. (mn-cl)
1977  Orlon Murdered. Shirley Brickley, a founder member of The Orlons, the group who scored three US Top 5 hits in under a year, died of gunshot wounds. She was 32 years old. (mn-jt)
1999  Since he lost his court case in Febuary against the West Midland Police, Carl Josephs has been stopped another 4 times. To-day he hand over his road tax, insurance, driving licence and M.O.T certificates to head of the West Midlands Police to the gaze of the nations news media. He told them that they may as well keep them there and it will save him a lot of future inconvenience, but they posted them back to him the same day. C.J. is now advising anyone that gets stopped by the police to dial 999 and complain while at the stop scene to cause maximum inconvenience in return. (mn)
2010 Norman Johnson dies. b. Norman Johnson, 23rd May 1943, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. d. 13th October 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. 'General' Norman Johnson, the lead vocalist of the Soul Group, The Chairmen Of The Board, has died. He was 67. Norman died on Wednesday the 13th of October at his home in Atlanta, said band member Ken Knox. No cause was given. In February this year, Norman had knee surgery after complaining of knee pain during a show in Charlotte, a show which turned out to be his last live performance. In September, he had a knee replacement operation, and was recovering when he passed away. Although born in Virginia, Norman Johnson's career began in Raleigh, North Carolina. He began singing as a child in the local church choir at the age of six. Norman was signed to Altantic Records with his group the Humdingers by the age of 12, the group changing their name in 1961, to The Showmen. The Showmen were signed to Minit Records, where they released the single 'It Will Stand', which charted in 1961 and 1964. The group released further material for Minit and Swan, including the songs '39-21-40 Shape', later going their separate ways in 1968. After several solo releases, Norman signed to the emerging Invictus label in Detroit, Michigan. Under the wings of the Holland-Dozier-Holland team, he enlisted Danny Woods (from the The Showmen), Harrison Kennedy, and Eddie Curtis resulting in the formation of the Chairmen of the Board. Their debut single, 'Give Me Just a Little More Time' was an instant hit, charting at number 3 on the U.S. Billboard R&B chart in 1969. Capitalising on this success, further hits followed including '(You've Got Me) Dangling on a String' and 'Everything's Tuesday'.Norman was an accomplished songwriter in his own right, penning 'Pay to the Piper', which was another hit. Other General Johnson songs included the Grammy Award winning 'Patches' (a hit for Clarence Carter and the Chairmen) At Invictus Records, he wrote for the group Honey Cone writing 'Want Ads', 'Stick Up', 'One Monkey Don't Stop No Show', and 'Bring the Boys Home' for Freda Payne. As the Seventies progressed, Norman recorded solo material, releasing a self titled album in 1979 for the Arista imprint. The Chairmen later reformed and began performing on the beach music circuit. In 1993, the group released the album 'What Goes Around Comes Around', marking a renaissance within Soul Music circles. In recognition of the contribution that Norman Johnson has made to American popular music, the Virginia General Assembly designated the 9th of June 2001 as General Johnson Day in Virginia. Norman Johnson was named General after his father. He didn't start using the name professionally until a record executive told him it was a good professional name. Norman is survived by his wife, Julia, two sons, and a daughter. (soulwalking)

14th. OCTOBER  

PCRL DJ C.J. (Carl Josephs) BORN  
BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC BEGINS:
145: GEORGE P BRIDGETOWER (1779-1860)  
1943  Robert Parker, saxophonist/singer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Parker recorded Caught you in a lie, later a reggae hit for Lorna Bennett, Also remembered for his big 60's hit Barefootin'. (mn)
1945  Marcia Barrett of the group Boney M, born. (mn-jt)
1948  Ivory Tillmon, soul singer with The Detroit Emeralds born. In the late 60's the group had a first hit with Showtime with the Ric-Tic Label, in the 70s with Janus Records: Feel The Need; You Want It You Got it and Feel the Need. (interview: Mickey Nold Archives) (mn-jt)
1964  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. awarded the Nobel Peace prize, at 35 he is the youngest man ever to win this. This most influential leader in the twentieth-century African-American's struggle for civil rights, King was born in Atlanta, Georgia. Both his father and his maternal grandfather were Baptist ministers at Ebanezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, providing strong religious tradition for King. (tr-bl-mn-ss)
1965  Karyn White, soul singer born in Los Angeles, USA. Gained early professional experience as a backing singer with O'Brian. She later met Michael Jeffries who was working with Jeff Lorber on his debut album. She's featured on Lorber's Facts of Life and this led her to a solo career. Best remembered for her hit Superwoman (1989). (rt-jt)
1965  Kieth Aubrey Jones, 5'8", 11.2 footballer, born in Dulwich. International Honours: E: Yth; Sch. (bh-mn)
1975 Shaznay Lewis (uk singer) born London. Oct 14. 'x' All Saints. (nationmaster)

15th. OCTOBER 

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT MUSIC: 
146: SAMUEL COLERIDGE-TAYLOR (1875-1912) 
1925  Mickey Baker singer/guitarist with Mickey & Sylvia, born McHouston Baker. (mn-jt)
1938  Marv Earl Johnson soul singer/songwriter/producer born in Detroit USA. The money from his 50's hits was used to set up Berry Gordy's Motown empire. His Come to Me was the first single released on the Tamla label (Tamla 101) in January 1959, United Artists soon leased it for national distribution. He Died on 16th. May 1993 just a short while after appearing on PCRL. He lies in an unmarked grave. (mn-br) 
1938  Fela Ransome Kuti born in Abeokuta. Later changed his slave name. It's almost impossible to overstate the impact and importance of Fela Anikulapo (Ransome) Kuti (or just Fela as he's more commonly known) to the global musical village: producer, arranger, musician, political radical, outlaw. He was all that, as well as showman par excellence, inventor of Afro-beat, an unredeemable sexist, and a moody megalomaniac. His death on August 3, 1997 of complications from AIDS deeply affected musicians and fans internationally, as a musical and sociopolitical voice on a par with Bob Marley. (mj)
1968  Wyomia Tyus becomes the first person to win a gold medal in the 100-metre race in two consecutive Olympic Games. (tr-iokts)
1969  Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke, president of Somalia, assassinated.
1969  Charles Brewer IBF Super Middleweight World Champion Boxer is born. Record: 30-5 (20). Best wins: Frank Rhodes; Gary Ballard and Joey De Grandis. He lives in Pennsauken, New Jersey, USA. (mn-ring)
1971  Andy Cole 5'11", 11.12 footballer born in Nottingham. Played for Newcastle; Arsenal; Fulham; Bristol and Manchester United. Club Honours: Div 1 '93; PL '96;, '97; FAC '96; CS '97. International Honours: E: 2;B-1; U21-8; Yth, Sch. (tr-bh-mn)
1953  Tito Jackson singer with The Jackson 5, born Toriano Adaryll Jackson. (mn-jt)
1980  Bobby Lester of the soul group The Moonglows dies. This early-60's group from Chicago was put together by Harvey Fuqua and consisted of three members of the Marquis, one of whom was Marvin Gaye. They recorded two singles for Chess Records. (mn-rt)
1983  Five Star, all black R&B quintet, all members of the Pearson family who lived in the east London suburb of Romford, released their debut single Problematic, on there own Tent Records. (mn-jt)

16th. OCTOBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT MUSIC:  
147: JAMES BLAND (1854-1911)  
1859  John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, U.S. arsenal.
1903  Big Joe Williams, singer/guitarist, born, Crawford, Mississippi, U.S.A. (Dies December 17, 1982, Macon, Ga, USA. (mn-rs)
1935  Sugar Pie De Santo soul singer born Umpeylia Marsema Balinton in Brooklyn, New York, USA (mn)
1940  Benjamin O, Davis Sr. becomes the U.S. Army's first African American brigadier general. (tr-iokts)
1968  Mexico Olympics Slock Wave. Two Black American medal-winning sprinters send shock waves around the world by making Black Power salutes. Tommy Smith and John Carlos were banned from the Olympics and sent home. (mn-a1)
1969  [Leonard Chess founder of Chess Records dies]. (mn-jt)
1984  Bishop Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1986  Berry Welcomes Seventh Decade. Chuck Berry 60th birthday was calibrated by an all star concert in St Louis and released as a biography on video. (mn-jt)
1990  Art Blakey, jazz pianist and drummer dies. (mn-cl)
1995  The first of its kind 'The Million Man March' takes place in America. This will be a day of atonement for black people. Takes place in Washington D.C., USA. (1.8 million turn up!) (mn)
1998  UK National Day of Atonement - where all black peoples take a day off work and spend no money! This is called for by the United Black Front in the wake of the US Million Man March in 1995. (mn)

17th. OCTOBER  

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT MUSIC: 
148: BLIND LEMON JEFFERSON (1897-1929?) 
1806  Jean Jacques Dessalines, revolutionist and emperor of Haiti, assassinated.
1888  The first black owned bank, Capitol Savings Bank of Washington, D.C., USA, opens.
1934  Rico Rodriguez, reggae trombone player born, Emmanuel Rodriguez, Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. (mn-cl)
1936  Monk Higgins, music producer born Milton Bland in Menifee, Arkansas, USA. Started as a highly successful producer with One-Derful Records, then St. Lawrence and finally Chess Records. He also has a number of instrumental hits himself. (Died July 3, 1986). (mn-cl)
1956  Dr. Mae Jamison, astronaut, is born in Dectur, Ala', USA (tr-iokts)
1968  Ziggy Marley, son of Bob Marley born David Nesta "Ziggy" Marley, St. Ann's Perish, Jamaica is a Jamaican musician, the oldest son of Rita and Bob Marley, the legendary roots rock reggae singer. He learned how to play guitar and drums from his father. His mother Rita called and baptised him David, but his father Bob nicknamed him "Ziggy" in reference to a big spliff. In 1979, Ziggy and his siblings, Cedella, Stephen and Sharon, made their recording debut with their father, "Children Playing in the Streets". The Melody Makers, as the group came to be known, played occasionally for several years, including at their father's funeral in 1981. Their debut LP was Play the Game Right, which was a very pop-oriented album, earning Ziggy some derision from critics. The band's label, EMI, wanted to market Ziggy as a solo act, and so the Melody Makers moved to Virgin Records, where they recorded Conscious Party (1988, produced by Chris Frantz and Tina Weymouth). The album was critically and popularly successful, as was One Bright Day (1989) and Jahmekya (1991). Biggest international hit Tomorrow People (mn-jt-tr)
1972  Wyclef Jean, soul singer with The Fugees born. The Fugees are a critically acclaimed American music band, popular during the mid-1990s, whose repertoire includes primarily hip hop, with elements of soul, and Caribbean music (particularly reggae). The members of the group are leader/rapper/producer Wyclef Jean, rapper/singer Lauryn Hill, and rapper Pras Michel. Hill, Jean and Michel are all of Haitian heritage. Deriving their name from the term "refugee", the group is noted for the integration of soul and reggae into their work, and recorded two albums—one of which, The Score, was a multi-platinum and Grammy-winning success—before going their separate ways after 1997. Hill and Jean each went on to successful solo recording careers, while Michel focused mainly on soundtrack recordings and acting. (mn-tx)
1984  Aberta Hunter, singer dies, New York, NY, USA. In the 1920s she helped bridge the gap between classic blues and cabaret-flavoured pop music. In the process she and other singer like Lucille Hegamin, Ethel Waters and Edith Wilson introduced white audiences to the  emotional vigor of the blues. (mn-rs)
1999  10,000 Man March organized in Trafalgar Square, London. The event was attended by between 2 to 5 thousand Black men and woman. (mn-dp)
2008 Levi Stubbs (Four Tops) dies. b. Levi Stubbles, 6th June 1936, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. d. 17th October 2008, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. Levi Stubbs, one of the truly great Soul vocalists, has died. He passed away at his home in Detroit. He was 72. Levi had suffered a series of strokes and other illnesses had been sick for a number of years prior to his passing. The illnesses prevented him touring with his group, the Four Tops, in recent years. Levi did make an appearance during the televised '50 year anniversary Celebration of the Four Tops', one of his last public appearances. Singer, Ronnie McNeir, had been recruited to the Tops line-up in recent years, as fewer members of the original group endured. Laurence Payton died in 1997 (his son touring to this day as his fathers stand-in), Obie Benson died in 2005, and now Levi. Cousin of Jackie Wilson, Levi Stubbs and his wife Clineice were married from 1960. They had five children. The Four Tops began their career in the mid 50's, and were already professional recording artists and performers by the time they got to Motown.  They recorded for several labels before signing to Motown in 1963. The group were one of the main artistic outputs for the famous Holland/Dozier/Holland songwriting team. Their output was prolific for the label, a curriculum vitae featuring classics including 'Baby, I Need Your Loving" (July 1964), 'Ask the Lonely' (January 1965), 'I Can't Help Myself' (April 1965), 'It's the Same Old Song' (July 1965), 'Something About You' (October 1965), 'Shake Me, Wake Me (When It's Over)' (February 1966), 'Loving You Is Sweeter than Ever' (May 1966), 'Reach Out, I'll Be There' (August 1966), 'Standing in the Shadows of Love' (November 1966), 'Bernadette' (February 1967), '7 Rooms of Gloom' (May 1967), and 'You Keep Running Away' (August 1967). Holland-Dozier-Holland left Motown (1967), however, Levi and the Tops continued to record for the label, releasing, 'If I were You Carpenter', 'It's All in the Game,' 'Still Water (Love),' a duet with the Supremes on 'River Deep, Mountain High', and 'Just Seven Numbers (Can Straighten Out My Life)', all of which charted on the R&B Top Ten and, also, the mainstream Top 40. One final hit with Motown, '(It's the Way) Nature Planned It', led to a move to ABC Dunhill, where they enjoyed further success. 'Keeper of the Castle' (October 1972), 'Ain't No Woman (Like the One I Got)' (January 1973), 'Are You Man Enough' (June 1973 and taken from the soundtrack to the movie 'Shaft In Africa'), 'Sweet Understanding Love' (September 1973), 'One Chain Don't Make No Prison' (April 1974), and 'Midnight Flower' (July 1974), were all R & B hits of the highest standard. They returned to the R&B Top Ten with 'Catfish' (August 1976 and featuring the rare groove classic 'Strung Out On Your Love'), before relocating to the Casablanca imprint for the R&B number one 'When She Was My Girl' (September 1981). (soulwalking.co.uk)
2009 Louisia mark, a lovers rock singer best known for her work between the mid-1970s and early 1980s has died in The Gambia according to unconfirmed reports. Mark was voted top female reggae vocalist of 1978 . Her 1975 single "Caught You in a Lie" is regarded as the first lovers rock single, a style of reggae music noted for its romantic sound and content. Mark was born in Shepherd's Bush, London in 1960, and had her introduction to the music business via talent contests held at the Four Aces club in London. (gambia news/pilot)

18th. OCTOBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT    MUSIC: 
149: HARRY T. BURLEIGH (1866-1949)
1903  Felix Houphouet-Boigny, president of the Ivory Coast, born.
1925  Boogie Woogie Red, blues pianist, born, Rayville, La, USA. (Dies July 2, 1992, Detroit, Mich, USA). (mn-rs)
1926  Chuck Berry, rock and roll star born Charles Berry in San Jose, California, but his family later settled in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Originaly trained as a hairdresser, but in 1955 he was offered a recording deal with Chess Records in Chicago. Here he scored immediately with an American No. 1 hit with Maybellene. (mn-jt)
1938  Ronnie Bright singer with The Coasters is born. The Coasters are an American doo wop and early rock and roll group, evolving from The Robins, a Los Angeles based doo wop group. When The Robins signed with Atlantic Records (1955, after the chart success of "Smokey Joe's Cafe"), the group split up. Carl Gardner (tenor) and Bobby Nunn (bass) formed The Coasters. The Coasters continued their association with the Robins' legendary songwriters, Leiber & Stoller. They soon added Billy Guy (baritone), Leon Hughes (tenor) and Adolph Jacobs (guitar), releasing their first single "Down in Mexico", an R&B hit in 1956. In 1957, The Coasters crossed over with the double-sided hit "Young Blood"/"Searchin'". This was followed by a dry period, and the group relocated to New York City. Nunn and Hughes left, replaced by Will Dub Jones (bass, of The Cadets) and Cornell Gunter (from The Flairs). This new line-up released "Yakety-Yak", which included King Curtis on tenor saxophone. The song was a huge mainstream hit, as was the follow-up "Charlie Brown". This was followed by "Along Came Jones", "Poison Ivy", "Shoppin' for Clothes" and "Little Egypt".   (mn-jt)
1944  Orville 'Hoppy'  Jones , singer with the Inkspots, dies. The group originally formed in New York in 1935. They started life as The Percolating Puppies, but soon realized that such a silly name would be a handicap if their career was to progress. In 1939 they achieved major disc success with I Didn't Care. This introduced the world to there pioneering vocal style. (mn-bmcd)
1961  Gladstone Cleophas Small, Right-hand bat, right-arm fast-medium bowler for Warwickshire born in St. George, Barbados. County debut: 1980; County cap: 1982; Test debut: 1986; Tests: 17; One-Day Internationals: 53; 50 wickets in a season: 6. (cm-mn)
1961  Wynton Marsalis, jazz musician born in New Orleans. Started playing the trumpet at the age of six, encouraged by his father Ellis Marsalis, a pianist/composer and teacher. His brothers Branford and Marsalis are also musicians. (mn-jt)
2007 Lucky Philip Dube (pronounced doo-bay) dies. (b. 3 Aug 1964, ) was a South African reggae musician. He recorded 22 albums in Zulu, English and Afrikaans in a 25-year period and was South Africa's biggest selling reggae artist. Dube was murdered in the Johannesburg suburb of Rosettenville on the evening of 18 October 2007. (wikipedia)
2008 Dee Dee Warwick dies. b. Delia Mae Warrick, 25th September 1945, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A. d. 18th October 2008, Essex County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dee Dee Warwick has died. She was 63 years old. She died on Saturday at a nursing home in Essex County, and had been in failing health in recent months. Dionne was with her when she died. Born Delia Mae Warrick in Newark, New Jersey, Her older sister, Dionne Warwick recorded a catalogue of Soul classics, however, not to be outshone, Dee Dee created a body of work that his highly regarded amongst Soul purists. At that time, Dee Dee changed her surname from Warrick to Warwick in the early 1960's. Dee Dee sang background vocals for Aretha Franklin, Wilson Pickett and others before starting her solo career. Her first record on the Jubilee label, 'You're No Good', was later recorded in Chicago by Betty Everett for the VeeJay imprint. In 1964, Dee Dee signed with Mercury's Blue Rock subsidiary and, under the wing of producer Ed Townsend, recorded a series of excellent recordings, notably 'We're Doing Fine' (number 28 R & B). She then relocated to Mercury in 1966, where she reached the charts with 'I Want To Be With You' (number 9 R & B, number 41 pop), which was taken from the Broadway musical 'Golden Boy', and 'l'm Gonna Make You Love Me' (number 13 R & B, number 88 pop), which was remade the following year in the pop market by Madeline Bell and much later by a collaboration of the Supremes and the Temptations. Dee Dee then switched labels to Atco in 1970 and became produced in Miami by Dave Crawford, achieving chart success with 'She Didn't Know (She Kept On Talking)' (number 9 R & B, number 70 pop) and a remake of 'Suspicious Minds' (number 24 R & B, number 80 pop). 'Get Out Of My Life' was her last chart record in 1975. In 2006 Dee Dee returned to singing backgrounds for her sister, Dionne, in concert and also was part of the 'Family First' song in the Tyler Perry movie and soundtrack for 'Daddy's Little Girls'. In January 2008, Dee Dee is featured in the title song from Dionne's gospel album 'Why We Sing' and continued background vocal chores with her sister. In February 2008, Dee Dee toured with Dionne's one woman show 'My Music and Me' in Europe. Dee Dee was the niece of gospel singer Cissy Houston and a cousin of Whitney Houston. Dee Dee Warwick was an R&B Foundation Pioneer Awardee, and was also was a two-time Grammy Award nominee. (soulwalking.co.uk/dk)
2013 Felix dexter dies. (born 26/8/61))Felix Dexter was an award winning comedian writer and actor. He's a law graduate and a member of one of the Inns of Court. This legal background is extremely useful in his standup comedy career, enabling him to stun hecklers into silence with shouts of “objection!”. His TV credits include such landmark shows as: The Real Mc Coy, The Fast Show, Knowing Me Knowing You with Alan Partridge, Have I Got News For You, The Lenny Henry Show, Grumpy Old Men (over 35, just got in) and playing Saffy’s boyfriend in the last series of Absolutely Fabulous. Felix has also performed many straight acting roles in shows as diverse as The Bill, Casualty, Vanity Fair and Empire (broadcast on ...The Hallmark channel) in which he played “MAXIMUS” leader of the lost legion... oh yeah. In the theatre roles have included a season with the Royal Shakespeare Company playing Autolycus in The Winter’s Tale and at the National Theatre alongside Helen Mirren in Mourning Becomes Electra. In the West End Felix has appeared in two runs of One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest alongside Christian Slater having the dubious honour of giving chicken pox to Christian during the first run thereby almost wrecking the production.
On radio Felix is a cast member and writer on the highly successful Radio 4 spoof phone in show Down The Line. This show (created by Paul Whitehouse and Charlie Higson) won best Radio comedy at the Sony awards 2008 .(felixdexter.com)

19th. OCTOBER    

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC:
150: NATHANIEL DETT (1822-1943)  
1878  Dr. Frederick Vicor Nanka Bruce, the first medical doctor on the Gold Coast, born in Acca, Ghana.
1923  Gorgia Montgomery Davis Powers is born. (tr-bl)
1925  Marie Adams, born Ollie Marie Givens in Linton Texas, USA. Known affectionately as TV Mama (the one with the big wide screen), by her colleagues in The Johnny Otis Band, began singing with the Peacock label in 1952, accompanied by the bands of Hill Harvey, Chick Dillan and Pluma Davis, finding succses with her first release, I'm Gonna Play the Honkey Tonks. She was beleaved to have died in 1972.
1936  Johnnetta Cole, first African American woman to head Spellman College, is born in Jacksonville, Fla., USA. (tr-iokts)
1938  Robert Ward, soul singer born in Luthersville, Georgia, USA. Ward picked up his first guitar at age ten. As a youth he was inspired by the records of Sister Rosetta Tharpe, B.B. King, and Muddy Waters. After moving to Ohio in 1960 he formed The Ohio Untouchables, later known as The Ohio Players and in 1962 he was signed by a Detroit label and backed The Falcons with lead singer Wilson Pickett on the hit single "I Found A Love." After leaving the Untouchables in 1965 before they went on to international acclaim as the Ohio Players he cut a few singles including "Fear No Evil" and during the early '70s worked as a session guitarist at Motown, backing groups like the Temptations and the Undisputed Truth. After his wife's death in 1977 he dropped out of site for the next 13 years until a chance encounter led to his being signed by Black Top Records who released the sensational 1990 comeback album "Fear No Evil."  Ward's trademark vibrato-soaked guitar sound (later embraced by Lonnie Mack) was the direct result of acquiring a Magnatone amplifier at a Dayton music store in 1960. His lusty, fluently rhythmic guitar style is intense, exciting and strikingly original. His brash guitar leads and dancing chord style is intertwined with his raspy blues and soul-tinged vocals to create a sound that remains delightfully unpredictable. Two more early 1990's Black Top albums again captured Ward's curiously mystical appeal and propelled him to guitar-hero status. Today Ward lives in rural Dry Branch, Georgia, with his second wife Roberta, who collaborates with him on his music.    (mn-cl)
1944  Peter Tosh [Tuch], reggae artist and member of Wailers born Winston Hubert Mac Intosh in Westmoreland, Jamicia. When he quit the Wailers group in 1973 the prospect of him going solo and givin the free rein to his talent, temperament and commitment to social justice was an exciting one. The speak softly-and-cary-a-big-stick approach favoured by Marley was never going to work for a man such as Tosh. Standing six foot seven inches tall, a martial arts master and given to unreasonable displays of pique. Tosh was a man of direct action. (Murdered at his home, September 11, 1987). (jt-lb-mn-tr)
1944  George McCrae soul singer born in West Palm Beach, Florida, USA. Best remembered for his UK hit 'Rock Your Baby' (1974) and his singing wife, Gwen McCrae, to whom he managed and produced hits with. (mn)
1945  Sharon Redd soul singer born. She had a top 3 dance hit with 'Love Insurance' (1980). Her brother Gene Redd is the famous producer and her sister is Pennye Ford is also a singer. (Dies early 90's from AIDS) (mn-jt)
1947  Wilbert Hart soul singer with Four Gents/Delfonics born. Best remembered for debut hit 'La la Means I love you' (1968). (mn-
1960  Jenifer Holliday singer born in Houston, Texas, USA. Better known for her Tony winning role in the musical 'The Dreamgirls', a thinly-disguised adaptation of the Supremes' story. (mn-fp).
1962  Evander Holyfield, WBA/IBF Heavyweight World Champion boxer born. He resides in Atlanta Georgia. His record is 35-3 (25). Best wins were Dwight Muhammad Qawi; Buster Douglas and Mike Tyson. (mn-ring)
1966  Sinitta, singer born in Seattle, WA, USA. née: Sinitta Renet Malone. Sinitta is the daughter of disco singer Miquel Brown. Aided by 'Stock, Aitken and Waterman', she had 4 top ten hits between 1986 and 1989 with "So Macho", "Toy Boy", "Cross My Broken Heart" and "Right Back Where We Started From".  (mn-jt)

20th. OCTOBER      

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT    MUSIC: 
151: W.C. HANDY (1873-1958) 
1890     "Jelly Roll" Morton, Jazz pianist/leader/composer/vocals, b. New Orleans, LA, USA, d. July 10, 1941, Los Angeles, CA, USA. né: Ferdinand Joseph Lamothe. Various sources also list Morton's birth name as La Mothe, Lematt or Lemott; some sources also list his birth year as Sept. 20, 1885, in Gulfport, MS, USA. Born into a Creole family, he took the name "Morton" by Anglicizing the name of his step-father, Mouton. (nfo.net)
1906  Johnny Moore, guitarist, born John Dudley Moore in Austin, Texas, USA. He was an inspiration to most of the electric blues guitarists of the late 40s and early 50s and his solos on recordings by Ivy Jo Hunter, Floyd Dixon, and Charles brown, as well as tracks with his own group (the Three Blazers), bear witness that he was one of the unsung greats of his instrument. (Dies January 6, 1969 in Los Angeles, California, USA). (mn-cl)
1924  Baseball's first "colored World Series" is held in Kansas City, Mo., USA. (tr-iokts)
1934  Eddie Harris, Born in Chicago, Harris studied piano at home and attended the famous Du Sable High School, under the direction of Capt. Walter Dyett, where he learned to play vibes. He made his professional debut as a pianist, with Gene Ammons. Throughout his career, Harris was a tireless experimenter, playing saxophones with brass mouthpieces and vice versa. He wrote several books, including The Intervalistic Concept For All Single Line Instruments, an elaboration for saxophone of a piano style based on intervals. Eddie Harris was a one-of-a-kind, nonconformist multi-instrumentalist whose first recording, a saxophone rendition of the theme from the movie Exodus (1961), was a pop instrumental hit (it was the first Jazz track to make Pop No.1 - ed). Harris went to become one of the first jazz musicians to "plug in," playing his horn through a Varitone attachment, which netted him another hit, 1966's "The Tender Storm.” Later, he sang through a synthesized saxophone, and employed a guitarist on a customized instrument that was made to sound like a Hammond B-3 organ. Harris' composition "Freedom Jazz Dance" became a jazz standard after Miles Davis recorded it. Harris enjoyed renewed popularity with Les McCann's funk/jazz group, beginning in 1969, when they performed at the Montreux Jazz Festival; together they also recorded “Compared To What” and “Swiss Movement”. Harris recorded a jazz/rock album with Steve Winwood. “ Jeff Beck, and Eddie Harris In The UK.”  In the latter half of his career, Harris incorporated vocals into his act, as well as stand-up comedy. His recorded output was huge (70 albums!), and uneven. He died in Los Angeles on November 5, 1996.  (nfo.net-aareg)
1949 George Harris born in Grenada, West Indies is a UK film actor. His credits include 'Walcott',  Layer Cake, Flash Gordon, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Black Hawk Down and The Interpreter. He will be appearing in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, playing the part of Kingsley Shacklebolt. (wickpedia-mn)
1972  Snoop Doggy Dogg, rapper born, Calvin Broadus in Long Beach, CA, USA. Calvin Cordozar Broadus (born October 20, 1971 (NB: some sources state 1972 as the year-of-birth) in Long Beach, California) is a rapper and actor. His mother nicknamed him "Snoopy" as a child, and he took the stage name Snoop Doggy Dogg when he began recording. He shortened his name to Snoop Dogg in 1996, when he left original record label Death Row Records and signed with No Limit Records. He is the cousin of RBX, Nate Dogg, and Daz Dillinger.  (mn-jf)
1989  Federal Judge Alcee L. Hastings is impeached by the U.S. Senate.
1991  Arthur Ashe and Quincy Jones head a delegation of African Americans to assess political changes in South Africa. (tr-iokts)

21st. OCTOBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC:
152: WILLIAM GRANT STILL (1895-1978)  
1865  Jamaican national hero George William Gordon in unfairly arrested and sentenced to death. Gordon was a member of the House of Assembly. He was the son of a Scottish estate owner and a slave woman. He became a rich an successful business man that wanted to make a better life for the poor. A man that spoke for the rights of the poor in the House of Assembly and along with Paul Bogle was a member of the Baptist Church. Gordon supported Paul Bogle and after the Morant Bay Rebellion he was arrested and hanged. (mn-mc)
1872  John H. Conyers Sr. is the first African American to be admitted to the U.S. Naval Academy. (tr-iokts)
1917  Dizzy Gallespie, famous jazz trumpeter alias John Birks is born in Cheraw, South Carolina. Along with Charlie Parker and Thelonius Monk they are known as the inventors of 'Bebop' jazz. (Died 06.01.93.)
1934  Omega Psi Phi Fraternity is founded. (tr-iokts)
1941  [Steve Cropper], guitarist from Booker T. & MG's and session musician with the Stax Record label, born in Willow Springs, Missouri, USA. His effective guitar work is heard on hit records by Otis Redding; William Bell; Sam and Dave; Arthur Conley; Carla Thomas and many more.] (mn)
1967  Paul Emerson Carlyle Ince, 5'11" tall, 12s. 2lbs footballer born in Ilford, England. Club Honours: CS '93,'94; FAC '90,'94; ECW '91; FLC'92; PL '93,'94. International Honours: E: 43; B-1; U21-2; Yth. Manchester United paid £1,000,000 on 14/9/89; Liverpool paid £4,200,000 on 22/7/97; Inter Millan paid £8,000,000 on 13,7,95.(bh-mn)
2000  Frankie 'Loveman' Crocker, veteran radio broadcaster and programme director, dies of pancreatic cancer in Miami, Florida. USA. (mn-i-t-b)
2010 Weldon McDougal III dies. . Weldon Arthur MacDougal III, 28th October 1936, West Philadelphia, U.S.A. d. 21st October 2010, Philadelphia, U.S.A. The producer, performer, songwriter and promoter, Weldon MacDougal III has died from pancreatic cancer, following a lengthy battle with the illness. He was 74. Weldon was very much involved with the development of many artists at Motown (late Sixties / early Seventies) as well as being involved with the Philly Sound. He was credited as being a major contributor to the 'Sound Of Philadelphia', and was a founder member and co-owner of the Harthon/Dynodynamics imprints, along with the keyboard player, Luther Randolph and the guitarist, Johnny Stiles.  Weldon was also an artist in his own right, singing bass with his group the Larks (not the Don Julian related group), who changed their name to the Four Larks in order to identify a difference between bands. The Four Larks comprised of Jackie Marshall, Calvin Nichols, Bill Oxendine and Weldon. Prior to his participation in the Four Larks, Weldon sang with the group The Victors in the early 1950's. The Four Larks released several sides, including 'Groovin at the Go Go' b/w 'I Still Love You (From The Bottom Of My Heart)' in 1967, a song written and arranged by Thom Bell. The Four Larks recorded with Barbara Mason circa 1965, and recorded as a unit up until the end of the Sixties. With Harthon, the Weldon, Luther and Johnny brought the local group, Jo-Ann Jackson and the Dreams, to the label and recorded ‘Georgie Porgie’, the first 45 on the label. The trio collaborated with the Philly artists, Bobby Eli, Norman Harris, Earl Young and Ronnie Baker, along with the writers and producers, Thom Bell and Eddie Holman amongst others. Eddie Holman recorded for the label releasing the hit 'Hey There Lonely Girl'. When Eddie left Harthon, the three owners went their separate ways. Wendell departed Philadelphia and began working in the promotions department for Motown, where he stayed until returning to Philly in 1972 to work with Gamble and Huff at Philadelphia International. In 1969, Wendell first hooked up with the Jackson 5, who were performing at a talent show in Chicago (at the High Chapparal club). He introduced the group to Bobby Taylor, who in turn took the group to Berry Gordy. Wendell was part of the group's development and helped with tributes and a book ('The Michael Jackson Scrapbook') regarding Michael Jackson following the artists death in 2009. Although little is written regarding Wendell's endeavour's, he is responsible for a huge body of production work. One side of interest to Soul fans is the production work on Universal Love's 1977 rare groove classic, 'It's You Girl'. (soulwalking)
2011 Edmundo William Ros OBE dies aged 100. (born 7 December 1910) was a Trinidadian musician, vocalist, arranger and bandleader who made his career in Britain. He directed a highly popular Latin-American orchestra, had an extensive recording career, and owned one of London's leading night-clubs. Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, Ros' mother was a black Venezuelan and his father was of Scottish origin. Ros was the eldest of four children: two sisters, Ruby and Eleanor, followed by half-brother Hugo. His parents separated after Hugo was born, and after various false steps Edmundo was enrolled into a military academy. There he became interested in music and learned to play the euphonium. From 1927 to 1937 his family lived in Caracas, Venezuela. He played in the Venezuelan Military Academy Band as well as being a tympanist in the Venezuelan Symphony Orchestra. Later he received a music scholarship from the government, under which from 1937 to 1942 he studied harmony, composition and orchestration at the Royal Academy of Music, London. At the same time he was the vocalist and percussionist in Don Marino Baretto’s band at the Embassy Club and also recorded several sides as a sideman to Fats Waller, who was visiting London in 1938. At the age of 90, in the 2000 New Year's Honours List, Ros was appointed to the Order of the British Empire. He turned 100 in December 2010. Ros was a Freeman of the City of London, having been admitted to the Freedom of the Worshipful Company of Poulters on 5th January 1965 and was subsequently clothed with the Livery of the Poulters' Company on 22nd June 1965. He was a Mason, a member of Sprig of Acacia Lodge No 41, Javea, Spain. Ros married twice: Britt Johansen in 1950, Susan in 1971. The first marriage produced two children, Douglas and Louisa. (wiki)

22nd. OCTOBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT   MUSIC: 
153: WILLIAM L. DAWSON (1898-1990)  
1888  F. Deus Legitime is elected president of Haiti.
1936  Bobby Seale, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self-Defence along with Huey Newton in 1966; the organisation was originally set up to monitor police who were patrolling Oakland's black community. He was jailed after the riots broke out during the 1968 Chicago Democratic National Convention, and he was thought to be connected with the murder of Alex Rackly, a suspected Black Panther informer. In 1969 Seal spoke at a Black Panther meeting of changing tactics from self-defence to socialism. In 1973 he ran for Mayor of Oakland and narrowly lost. (tr-iokts-ss)
1968  Shaggy, reggae singer/rapper born Orville Richard Burrell in Kingston, Jamaica. His first international hit was thought by many to be a one-off, and few imagined New York ragga would repeat it's phenomenal success. But Shaggy's updating of the Folks Brothers' 1958 Jamaican hit, Oh Carolina exploited the full potential of the original song with a totally modern setting. (mn-sb&pd-tx)
1969  Tommy Edwards singer dies. Born February 17, 1922 in Richmond, Virginia, USA. He started his professional career in 1931. He wrote the hit, 'The Chicks Too Young Too Fry' for Louis Jordan in 1946. His big hit 'It's All In The Game' had been issued in 1951 (reaching US No. 18), but was re-recorded as a beat-ballad in 1959 reaching No.1 that year, a tune based on a 1912 melody by future US Vice President Charles Gates Dawes. The song was later a hit for Cliff Richard, The Four Tops and Van Morrison. (mn-jt-cl)
1983  Keith Barrow soul singer dies best remembered for his song 'You Know You Wanna Be Loved' (Number 26 R&B, 1978). Barrow started as a gospel singer, he's the son of Chicago's famous minister, Willie T. Barrow (she served as national executive director of Operation Push, an African American civil rights organisation). Keith dies on this day, aged 27 an early victim of AIDS. (b.1956 Chicago, Illanois, USA.)  (mn-cl)
1997  The I-Threes singers Rita Marley/Marcia Grifiths/Judy Mowatt were honoured with Jamaican top civic award, The Musgrave Award, they once sang with Bob Marley & The Wailers. (tr-voice)
2000  Hortence Ellis, reggae singer/sister of Alton Ellis dies at Kingston Public Hospital. Sources say, she was suffering from a stomach ailment and had to be re-hospitalised after being released last week. Michael Barnett of MKB Production, promoters of Heineken Startime, on which she has appeared in recent years, expressed regret at her passing. "I am truly saddened by this. "I spoke to her last Thursday and she told me that she had been in the hospital for a little while. She wanted tickets for the next show to give to the doctors and nurses, whom she said were very nice to her. "We didn't get into details of what was wrong, but I know she had left the hospital. I was really shocked when I heard she had died," he told The Gleaner. Hortense Ellis is the sister of rock steady icon Alton Ellis with whom she recorded a number of collaborations in early years. The mother of 14 children, Hortense Ellis, gave of her best at every Startime event. "She was a very good singer and she always sought to put her total energy into her performances," said Barnett. He added that perhaps her only disappointment in life was that she was never given the level of recognition she sought. "She was very humble and easy-going, but she was never given due recognition nor rewards in the music business. Phyllis Dillon told me that Hortense was the person she tried to emulate, when she started singing. One always got the impression that Hortense wanted more," said Barnett. Hortense Ellis was Jamaica's first local-based female singing star. She was voted Best Female Singer in 1964. Among the songs which made her popular were Unexpected Places, Woman Of The Ghetto, Superstar, Down The Aisle and Something You Got, which was recorded with Alton Ellis.   (ae-mm-mn-gleaner)
2005 Riots in Lozells. Tension in the community between Asians and African Carribeans. One person is dead, a police man is shot, and many are knifed and hospitolised. A PCRL presenter pleads with some the youths during the roiting, to make there protests by peaceful means. (mn-dp)

23rd. OCTOBER        

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC: 
154: PAUL ROBESON (1898-1976)  
1873  Virginia emancipates slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War. (tr-iokts)
1886  Wiley Jones operates the first streetcar in Pine Bluff, Ar., USA.
1939  Charlie Foxx soul singer with Inez & Charlie Foxx born. Charlie was a budding songwriter, his re-working of the nursary rhyme, Mocking Bird, became the sister and brother's first hit in 1963, although not until 1969 in the UK. (mn-cl)
1940  Pele, football superstar born.Name at birth: Edson Arantes do Nascimento. The most famous footballer of his generation, Pelé joined the Santos Football Club in 1956 and stayed with the club through his retirement in 1974, helping the team to nine championships in 18 years. Pelé played on four Brazilian World Cup teams, including the country's three World Cup wins in 1958, 1962 and 1970. The 1958 final was perhaps his most famous match, with Pelé scoring two goals in Brazil's 4-2 win over Sweden. Pelé became more famous in America in 1975, when he came out of retirement to play for the New York Cosmos of the infant North American Soccer League. Pelé retired again in 1977 after leading the Cosmos to the NASL championship. His 1977 autobiography was titled My Life and the Beautiful Game.  (mn)
1966  The Supremes become the first female group to top the US album chart. The album was 'Supremes A-Go-Go'. (mn-jt)
1977  Alexander Jeremy Tudar, Right-hand bad, right-arm fast bowler for Surrey is born in West Brompton, London. County debut: 1995.(cm-mn)
1987  Ted Taylor, R&B singer, dies in a road accident in Lake Charles, La.,USA. He was a vetran of several spiritual groups including the Mighty Clouds of Joy and the Santa Monica Soul Seekers. This later group the crossed to R&B, where they followed a duel career both as the Cadets and the Jacks. Taylor embarked on a solo path in 1957 and had success with regional hits. Best remembered for Stay Away From My Baby and Be Ever Wonderful for Duke Records in 1960. (mn-cl)

24th. OCTOBER      

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC: 
155: ROLAND HAYES (1887-1976)  
1962  James Brown record's the Live At The Apollo Album. History's all-time best selling live album. Also on this day Cicely Tyson and Godfrey Cambridge were appearing at the St. Mark's Playhouse in an Off-Broadway production of Jean Genet's the Blacks. Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf? had just opened on Broadway. Yvonne Fair, who joined James Brown in 1961 from the Chantells, was replaced after the Apollo shows by Tammy Montgomery, later known as Tami Terrell. (mn)
1964  Kenneth David Kaunda becomes president of Zambia.
1942  Billboard magazine creates its first ratings chart devoted to African American music. (tr-iokts)
1944  Bettye Swann, singer/songwriter born today in Shreveport, Louisiana, USA. This superior singer first recorded during the early 60s with the Fawns. A Carolyn Franklin song, Don't Wait Too Long, provided Swann with a solo hit in 1965, two years later her career was fully launched with the beautiful Make Me Yours on Money Records, a US R&B chart topper. Subsequent recordings have established the singer's reputation as an imaginative interpreter of country/soul. (mn-cl)  
1974  Al Green Scalded By Girlfriend's Grits. 28-year-old star Al Green was taking a shower at his home in Memphis when his ex-girlfriend Mary Woodson, burst in threw a pan of hot grits over him, before shooting and killing herself with his gun, she was buried today (incident was 18-10-74). (mn-jt)
2005   Rosa Parks, civil rights heroine died, DETROIT (AP) - Rosa Lee Parks, whose refusal to give up her bus seat to a white man sparked the modern civil rights movement, died Monday. She was 92. Mrs. Parks died at her home of natural causes, said Karen Morgan, a spokeswoman for U.S. Rep. John Conyers, D-Mich. Mrs. Parks was 42 when she committed an act of defiance in 1955 that was to change the course of American history and earn her the title "mother of the civil rights movement." At that time, Jim Crow laws in place since the post-Civil War Reconstruction required separation of the races in buses, restaurants and public accommodations throughout the South, while legally sanctioned racial discrimination kept blacks out of many jobs and neighborhoods in the North. The Montgomery, Ala., seamstress, an active member of the local chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, was riding on a city bus Dec. 1, 1955, when a white man demanded her seat. Mrs. Parks refused, despite rules requiring blacks to yield their seats to whites. Two black Montgomery women had been arrested earlier that year on the same charge, but Mrs. Parks was jailed. She also was fined $14. Speaking in 1992, she said history too often maintains "that my feet were hurting and I didn't know why I refused to stand up when they told me. But the real reason of my not standing up was I felt that I had a right to be treated as any other passenger. We had endured that kind of treatment for too long." Her arrest triggered a 381-day boycott of the bus system organized by a then little-known Baptist minister, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., who later earned the Nobel Peace Prize for his work. "At the time I was arrested I had no idea it would turn into this," Mrs. Parks said 30 years later. "It was just a day like any other day. The only thing that made it significant was that the masses of the people joined in." The Montgomery bus boycott, which came one year after the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark declaration that separate schools for blacks and whites were "inherently unequal," marked the start of the modern civil rights movement. The movement culminated in the 1964 federal Civil Rights Act, which banned racial discrimination in public accommodations. After taking her public stand for civil rights, Mrs. Parks had trouble finding work in Alabama. Amid threats and harassment, she and her husband Raymond moved to Detroit in 1957. She worked as an aide in Conyers' Detroit office from 1965 until retiring Sept. 30, 1988. Raymond Parks died in 1977. Mrs. Parks became a revered figure in Detroit, where a street and middle school were named for her and a papier-mache likeness of her was featured in the city's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Mrs. Parks said upon retiring from her job with Conyers that she wanted to devote more time to the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development. The institute, incorporated in 1987, is devoted to developing leadership among Detroit's young people and initiating them into the struggle for civil rights.

25th. OCTOBER       

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT    MUSIC:
156: DEAN DIXON (1915-1976)  
Independence Day - Republic of Zambia.
1892  Black Invention: Bridle Belt, Lincoln F. Brown. (sc)

1976  Deon John Burton, 5'8", 11.9 footballer born. International honours: Jamaica: 16. Derby County paid £1 Million+ for him on 9/8/97. (cm-mn)
1988  Ku Klux Klan is ordered to pay $1 million to African Americans attacked in Forsyth County, Ga., USA. (tr-iokts)
1997  Student Awarded Record Pay-out. Earl Hill a student from south-west London was awarded £45,600 at the Civil County Court in Wood Green, north London. This was awarded for 'police abuse', after he had been stopped and searched in 1990. (PCRL's C.J. Gospel has been pursuing a similar case against the Chief Constable here in Birmingham since 1993). (mn-tr-voice)
2010 Gregory Isaacs (the Cool Ruler) died at his home in London at the age of 59. His manager confirmed the performer died Monday morning surrounded by his family. He was diagnosed with liver cancer a year ago. "Gregory was well-loved by everyone, his fans and his family, and he worked really hard to make sure he delivered the music they loved and enjoyed," his wife, Linda, told BBC News. "He will be greatly missed by his family and friends."The Jamaican singer shot to fame in 1982 with his album Night Nurse — which included a hit song of the same name — recorded at Bob Marley's Tuff Gong studio. His other hit singles included Tune In, Down the Line, Slave Master, Cool Ruler, My Number One, Love Overdue, Rumours and The Border. Isaacs entered the Jamaican music scene in his teens, working with several labels. His smoother version of reggae was dubbed Lovers Rock, and Isaacs was given the nickname Cool Ruler for his mellow music, which became popular in the U.K. At the time, he was considered just as popular as Marley and Jimmy Cliff. On the cusp of success, Isaacs began a 20-year battle with drug abuse, which saw him sidelined for most of the 1980s and 1990s. He also lost most of his teeth as his health began to decline. In recent years, the singer managed to kick his habit and began recording again. His 2008 album, Brand New Me, would be his last. (cbc news)

26th. OCTOBER       

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT   MUSIC: 
157: LOUIS "SATCHMO" ARMSTRONG (1900-1971) 
1897  Black Invention: Steam Table, George W. Kelley. (sc)
1912  Mahalia Jackson, "Queen of the Gospel Song", born in New Orleans, La. Jackson grew up in the "Black Pearl" section of the Carrollton neighborhood of Uptown New Orleans, Louisiana, and began singing in a Baptist church. In 1927 she moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she sang with The Johnson Brothers, one of the earliest professional gospel groups. The Johnson Brothers broke up in the mid-1930s, and Jackson began her solo career, recording for Decca in 1937. The result, "God's Gonna Separate the Wheat from the Tares", was only a moderate success, but Jackson became a popular concert draw. She experienced a recording hiatus until 1946 when she signed with Apollo Records, releasing several singles that are now highly regarded, though sales were sluggish at the time. "Move on up a Little Higher" (1948) became a huge success, however, and stores could not stock enough of it to meet demand. Jackson rocketed to fame in the U.S. and soon after in Europe. "I Can Put My Trust in Jesus" won a prize from the French Academy, and "Silent Night" was one of the best-selling singles in the history of Norway. She began a radio series on CBS and signed to Columbia Records in 1954. With her mainstream success came an inevitable backlash from gospel purists who felt she had watered down her sound for popular accessibility. Jackson's career in the late 1950s and early 1960s continued to rise when she recorded with Percy Faith, and performed at the 1958 Newport Jazz Festival and the inauguration of John F. Kennedy. She also sang at the funeral of her friend Martin Luther King, Jr. The late 1960s saw a downturn in her popular success. She ended her career with a concert in Germany in 1971; when she returned, she made one of her final television appearances on The Flip Wilson Show. In the mid-1960s, Jackson and country commediene Minnie Pearl were convinced by Nashville entrepreneur John Jay Hooker to lend their names to chains of fried chicken resturants to compete with Kentucky Fried Chicken aimed at their respective predominantly black and white entertainment audiences. Jackson's chain used the memorable tag line "It's Glori-fried!" The venture collapsed amid claims of accounting irregularities, stock-price fixing, and other fraud, but a long U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation showed that neither Jackson nor Pearl had any involvement in, or knowledge of, the wrongdoing. One "Mahalia Jackson's Fried Chicken" outlet still remains in Nashville as of 2006 and enjoys considerable success and local fame in the vicinity of the Tennessee State University campus. Jackson died in Chicago on January 27, 1972, of heart failure and diabetes at the age of 60. She was buried in Providence Memorial Park in Metairie, Louisiana. She was posthumously inducted into the Gospel Music Association's Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 1978. (mn-cf-wickpedia)
1919  Edward W. Brooke, first African American elected to the U.S. Senate as a Republican since Reconstruction, is born in Washington, D.C., USA. (tr-iokts)
1940  Eddie Henderson, horn player born. Eddie Henderson was one of the few trumpeters who was strongly influenced by Miles Davis' work of his early fusion period. He grew up in San Francisco, studied trumpet at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, but was trained to be a doctor when he permanently chose music. Henderson worked with John Handy, Tyrone Washington, and Joe Henderson, in addition to his own group. He gained some recognition for his work with the Herbie Hancock Sextet (1970-1973), although his own records (which utilized electronics) tended to be commercial. After Hancock broke up his group, Henderson worked with Art Blakey and Mike Nock, recorded with Charles Earland, and later, in the 1970s, led a rock-oriented group. In the '90s, he returned to playing acoustic hard bop (touring with Billy Harper in 1991) while also working as a psychiatrist. ~ Scott Yanow, All Music Guide  (mn-cl-answers.com)
1951  Bootsy Collins, born William Collins in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Collins was bass player with James Brown's JB's between '69-'71. Later with Funkadelic and Bootsy's Rubber Band. Bootsy  is a funk/R&B bassist/singer/bandleader. He formed his first group, the Pacesetters, in 1968, featuring Phelps "Catfish" Collins (his brother; guitar), Frankie "Kash" Waddy (drums), and Philippe Wynne. From 1969 to 1971, the group functioned as James Brown's backup band and was dubbed the JB's. In 1972, Bootsy joined George Clinton's Parliament/Funkadelic. He launched Bootsy's Rubber Band as a spin-off of P-Funk in 1976, the band including his brother Phelps, Waddy, Joel "Razor Sharp" Johnson (keyboards), Gary "Mudd-Bone" Cooper (drums), and Robert "P-Nut" Johnson (vocals), along with "the Horny Horns." (He was sometimes billed alone as Bootsy, and sometimes as William "Bootsy" Collins.) Signing to Warner Bros., he enjoyed the first of his 15 R&B singles-chart entries in 1976 with "Stretchin' Out (In a Rubber Band)." His most successful singles were "The Pinocchio Theory" (1977) and the chart-topping "Bootzilla" (1978). He also released six albums on Warners through 1982, including the gold-sellers Ahh...the Name Is Bootsy Baby! (1977) and Bootsy? Player of the Year (1978), then took a six-year recording hiatus, and returned on Columbia in 1988 with the appropriately named What's Bootsy Doin'? In 1989, Bootsy was a member of the Bootzilla Orchestra on Malcolm McLaren's album Waltz Dancing. In 1990, Bootsy was a featured guitarist and bassist with the dance music trio Deee-Lite. Bootsy's New Rubber Band released Blasters of the Universe on August 2, 1994. Straight Outta P University followed four years later. ~ William Ruhlmann, All Music Guide  (mn-answers.com)
1990  Zuzu Bollin, journeyman jump-blues singer/guitarist, real name A.D. Bollin, born in Frisco, Texas, USA. (Dies in West Dallas, Texas, USA). (mn-rs)
1997  Kim Weston, vintage Tamla-Motown star makes her second interview for PCRL bringing the listeners up to date on her life via interviewee Bill Randle. One of Kim's songs was used by The Black Panther Movement as an anthem. Kim also devotes much of her time to community workshops etc, the group Body was one of her prodigies. (mn-br)
2005 David Townsend of 80's soul band Surface found dead. Vocalist/writer/producer known for such lush ballads as "Happy," "Closer Than Friends," "Shower Me With Your Love" and "The First Time," was found dead inside his Northridge, California home Wednesday night by a close friend. The cause of death was unknown. Townsend was 50. Townsend was the son of the late songwriter/producer Ed Townsend.  (EWeb)
2010 James Phelps dies. b. 2nd April 1932, Shreveport, Louisiana, U.S.A. d. 26th October 2010, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Soul and Gospel vocalist, James Phelps has died. He was 78. James suffered complications as a result of diabetes. He recorded the song, 'Love Is A Five Letter Word', and worked with The Gospel Songbirds, The Holy Wonders, The Soul Stirrers, The Clefs Of Calvary, Lou Rawls and Sam Cooke. (soulwalking)

27th. OCTOBER       

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT MUSIC:  
158: DUKE ELLINGTON (1899-1974)   
1891  Black Invention, D.B. Downing, inventor, awarded a patent for his street letter box.
1927  Ruby Dee, actor and civil rights activist, is born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Ruby Dee has been a star of stage and screen since her 1946 Broadway debut in Anna Lucasta. She has since appeared hundreds of times in plays, movies and television shows, frequently co-starring with her husband, actor Ossie Davis. The pair, married since 1948, are also famous for their off-screen activism and work on behalf of African-Americans in the performing arts. Dee's films include The Jackie Robinson Story (1950), A Raisin in the Sun (1961, with Sidney Poitier), Do the Right Thing (1988, directed by Spike Lee) and Baby Geniuses (1999). In 2004 Dee and Davis were honored by the Kennedy Center for their contributions to the performing arts in America... In 1998 Dee published a collection of writings, My One Good Nerve... In 2000 she and Davis published their autobiography, With Ossie and Ruby: In This Life Together. (tr-iokts-answers.com)
1955  2,000 women demonstrate against the pass laws in Pretoria, South Africa (9th. August 1956 20,000 women take a petition to the Prime Minister some with children on their backs!). (mn)
1960  Ben E. King Cuts First Solo Sides. Ben E. King completes his first recording session as a solo artist after leaving The Drifters, the groups he had fronted since July 1958. After singing lead on such magnificent classics as 'There Goes My Baby, (US top 3),'Dance With Me', 'This Magic Moment', 'Save The last Dance For Me'(a US No.1) and 'I Count The Tears', King had been fired from The Drifters by George Tredwell, after King wanted a wage increase to reflect his success. (mn-jt)
1997  Pop Star Haunts Nightclub. The ghost of Ken Snakehips Johnson who died on stage while performing at the Cafe' de Paris in London during the blitz in 1940 was seen to walk through the cellar walls in 40's style clothes. (tr-voice)

28th. OCTOBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT MUSIC:
159: MARIAN ANDERSON (1902-    )    
1798  Levi Coffin, founder of "Underground Railroad", is born, New Garden, N.C., U.S.-died Sept. 16, 1877, Cincinnati, Ohio) U.S. abolitionist. Despite little formal education, he became a teacher. As a devout Quaker, he opposed slavery. In 1826 he moved to Newport, Ind., where he made his home into a depot of the Underground Railroad and used much of his wealth as a merchant to help the escaping slaves. In 1847 he moved to Cincinnati, where he opened a store selling goods made only by free labour. He continued his work with the Underground Railroad until the outbreak of the American Civil War; he then worked to aid liberated slaves.   (tr-iokts-answers.com)
1862  The first Kansas Coloured Volunteers fight a victorious battle at Island Mound, Mo., USA.
1909   Willie Hatcher, Soul vocals, b. Clarksdale, MS, USA. (raised in Cleveland, OH, USA) nfo.net
1927  Cloe Laine (born Clementia Cinah Campbell) born in Southhall, Middlesex. Jazz scat actor.In 1979 Laine was made an Officer (OBE) of the Order of the British Empire for services to music. In the 1997 New Year's Honours list, Laine's membership of the order was upgraded to Dame Commander, and she became Dame Cleo Laine DBE (the female equivalent of a knighthood). In the 2006 New Years Honours list, her husband John Dankworth was made a knight bachelor, becoming Sir John Dankworth.   (nationmaster/wickpedia)
1931   Harold Raymond Battiste, Jr., composer/arranger/performer/reeds/piano/teacher, b. New Orleans, LA, USA. In 1949, after graduating from Booker T. Washington High School, Battiste attended New Orleans' Dillard University, earning a B.S. in Music in 1953. As a studio arranger/producer, his work includes Barbara George's "I Know", Sonny and Cher's "I Got You Babe", Joe Jones' "You Talk Too Much", and Lee Dorsey's "Ya Ya". Battiste introduced New Orleans artist Mac Rebbenack as "Dr. John" to the world, producing his first albums. Later, Battiste spent thirty years in Los Angeles, including fifteen years with Sonny and Cher. Besides his musical scoring and conducting for film and TV, Battiste has been a lecturer at several colleges including Southern University, UCLA and USC, Mozartium Music School in Innsbruck, Austria and Le Torri Montanare in Lancano, Italy. In 1989, he joined Ellis Marsalis on the Jazz Studies faculty of the University of New Orleans. He has tutored many music professionals. In 1998, the Mayor of the City of New Orleans, Marc Morial, issued a proclamation officially naming his birthday as 'Harold Battiste Day'. Over his career, Batrtiste has received the Beau Arts Award, the Governor's Arts Lifetime Achievement Award, the Mayor's Arts Award, and many others. (nfo.net)
1934  Omega Psi Phi Fraternity is incorporated. (tr-iokts)
1965  Earl Bostic, saxophonist player dies. He played in big bands during the Swing era and led his own small groups from 1945, on the King label from 1949 to 1963, and very successfully: in the early 50s nearly every juke box in a black neighbourhood had Bostic records on it, and many a white box as well!, Flamingo was a No.1 R&B hit in 1951 and many followed. (mn-jt)
1967  Jody Edwards, vaudeville singer dies. He was part of Butterbeans & Susie duo in the 1920s, spicing home-spun satirical skits on marriage and other male-female relationships with blues songs. The duo made a number of Okeh Records in the mid and late 20s and frequently travelled the Blues booking circuits. (mn-rs)
1998  Janet Jackson's Star Spangled Album. Rhythm Nation 1814, Janet Jackson's follow-up to her chart topping 1987 album Control, also reached No.1 in the USA. 1814 was a reference to the year that The Star Spangled Banner was composed (US National Anthem). (mn-jt)
2012 Terry Callier, singer/piano/guitar dies aged 67. Born in Chicago, May 24, 1945. Jazz, Soul, Folk singer. Childhood friend of Curtis Mayfield, Major Lance & Jerry Butler. He recorded for Chess/Cadet label and was popular with UK Northern soul fans for 'Look At Me Now', sadly though his only R&B/Pop chart entry came at Electra with 'Sign Of The Times' in 1978. He was a regular live performer at the Jazz Cafe/Ronnie Scotts clubs in London UK. (mn/sw)

29th. OCTOBER     

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT    MUSIC: 
160: ULYSSES KAY (1917-      )    
1945  Melba Moore, soul singer born in New York City, New York, USA. Based in New York Moore first attracted attention in the Broadway production of Hair. Although she has continued her thespian inclinations, winning an award for her performance in the musical Purlie, Moore reached the UK Top 10 in 1976 with This Is It. (mn-cl)
1949  Olonzo G. Moron from Virgin Islands becomes the first black president of Hampton Institute, Va., USA.
1961  Randy Jackson, singer/percussionist born. When the Jackson 5 departed Motown Records in 1976 Randy Jackson replaced his brother Germaine as the group signed to Epic Records as the Jackson's. (mn-jt)
1968  James Brown record's Give It Up Or Turn It Loose at Criteria Studios, Miami, Florida, USA. Reaches N0.1 in R&B chart. (mn)
1969  Johnson Products Company of Chicago, Ill, the largest African American hair care products manufacturer, is incorporated. (tr-iokts)
2000  Resurection 2000 march in Trafalgar square, London at 11 am, the Black United Front (Final Call To The Nation Of Islam and friends)calls for 144,000 all family members to march together. (mn)
2000  Charlcote and Longleat Towers, Lee Bank, Birmingham, UK were dynamited to the ground together at 12:20 pm. PCRL had used these these blocks as studio's in the 1990's. On the day their were approximately 200 people working on the project, along with 1,000 residents that were evacuated. 600 Heras Fence Panels had to be erected and dismantled on the same day. With all organisation and members of the partnership, this undoubtedly ensured the satisfactory conclusion of the demolition, which finally took less than five seconds. A very special thanks to the hundreds of people that allowed us to broadcast from their flats over the last 20 years - we could't have done it without your help. (mn-coleman & co)
2006 Trevor Berwick, boxer murdered. Police arrested a 20-year-old man in connection with the murder of former heavyweight champion Trevor Berbick, the Associated Press reported today. Berbick, believed to be 52, was found beaten to death yesterday morning near his home in Portland, Jamaica, 80 miles east of Kingston, the wire service said. The suspect wasn't identified, AP said, citing Les Green, Jamaica's assistant police commissioner. Police got more information from witnesses and found the murder weapon today, AP said, citing Green. Several residents said the suspect and Berbick were involved in a land dispute, AP said. Berbick, who was convicted in the U.S. for sexual assault, grand theft and burglary after his retirement from boxing, was Muhammad Ali's final opponent in 1981, AP said. Funeral arrangements haven't been announced by his family, AP said.  (bloomberg.com)

30th. OCTOBER   

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  MUSIC ends: 
161: LEONTYNE PRICE (1927)    
David Walker, free-born black, was the first to attack slavery though the press.
1925  Tommy Ridgley, pianist born in Shrewsbury, La, USA.  His career begun when he won a talent contest in 1949 and was hired by Dave Bartholomew to sing in front of his band. (mn-rs)
1939  Eddie Holland brother of Brian Holland and 1/3 of (Holland/Dozier/Holland) Motown's most successful production team born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. (mn)
1941  Otis Williams, Temptations singer born Otis Miles in Tyler, Alabama, USA and moved to Detroit at the age of one. Otis is the one with the deeeep voice. He is also the only original member of The Temptations still alive! (mn)
1960  Byron Burke member of the soul group Ten City born. The Chicago vocal group Ten City was one of the few house units to enjoy mainstream exposure during the late '80s and early '90s. Originally called Ragtyme, the trio was formed by vocalist Byron Stingily, guitarist Herb Lawson, and keyboard player Byron Burke, all under the aegis of producer extraordinaire Marshall Jefferson. After signing with Atlantic in the late '80s, Ten City's debut LP, Foundation, included the singles "Right Back to You" and "That's the Way Love Is," both of which received a good response in R&B and dance circles. State of Mind and No House Big Enough followed in 1990 and 1992, though Atlantic dropped them soon after. Just after release from their contract, the single "Fantasy" (written with Masters at Work) did well on the club scene, but by the time Ten City released their third album, That Was Then, This Is Now, the buzz had disappeared. The group rapidly disintegrated, though Stingily went on to a solo career. ~ Ron Wynn, All Music Guide (mn-jt)
1960  Tex Johnson, reggae singer/producer born in St. Vincent, West Indies. Emigrated to the UK with family in the 1960's. 'I wanna Hold You All Night Long' was his first recording. He then started the Discootex label. First single 'Pillow Talk' was a massive hit in 1981. He continues to produce and release lovers compilations, keeping reggae sweet and clean. (mn-cl)
1962  Courtney Andrew Walsh, Right-hand bat, right-arm fast bowler for Gloucestershire is born in Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. County debut: 1984; County cap: 1985; Test debut: 1984-5; Tests: 93; One-Day Internationals: 176; 509 wickets in a season: 2; 100 wickets in a season: 2. (cm-mn)
1979  Richard Arrington is elected the first black Mayor of Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
1991  BET Holdings Inc. becomes the first-African American company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. (tr-iokts)
2008 Mike Terry dies. Born Andrew Alexander Terry July 1940, Texas. His father ran Terry's Records there, but they later moved to Detroit. Mike played baritone sax on many Motown classics including most of the rare Detroit Northern soul classics too. He later concentrated on arranging music. Many of his tracks were made to perfection before the artistes even sang on them. PCRL via Bill Randal made a 60 minute programme about him when he returned to Detroit after a 20 year absence in 1992.  (achieve MD 900 - mn)

31st. OCTOBER       

BLACK HEROES PAST & PRESENT  (VISUAL ARTS starts:)
162: ROBERT DUNCANSON (1821-1871)     
1893  William Henry Lewis, football player at Havard, named All-American.
1899  Black Inventions: Switching Device for Railways. William F. Burr.
1900  Ethel Waters, singer and actor, is born in Chester, Pa., USA.  Ethel Waters was an African American singer and actress famous for her style of "blues" as well as for leading the way for black entertainers of her time. Her career peaked during the roaring `20s and continued throughout the 1930s during which time she completed the majority of her 259 recordings. Waters is best known for her performance of "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club in New York City as well as the role of Hagar in On with the Show; she is also known for writing two critically acclaimed autobiographies, His Eye is on the Sparrow, which focuses on her beginnings and achievements as an entertainer, and To Me It's Wonderful, which describes her participation in the Billy Graham Crusades that she toured with in her later years.  (tr-iokts)
1934 Norman Beaton (uk actor) born. Dies 13 dec 1994. Desmonds, Little Napoleons. Norman Lugard Beaton was born in Georgetown Guyana to William Beaton was a civil servant, and Ada. Beaton attended Queen's College in Guyana until he was expelled for truancy and bad grades. He was given a second chance at the Government Teachers' Training College and graduated with distinction. Beaton taught School and played with the calypso band The Four Bees before leaving Guyana for London in 1960.  He took a job in the shipping department of a bookshop until his wife and children arrived in London. He then landed a job as a teacher in Liverpool, becoming the first black teacher to be employed by the Liverpool Education Authority. Beaton would soon become frustrated with his job as a teacher and began writing plays, his first play the musical Jack of Spades centered on the doomed relationship between a black man and a white woman. The moderate success gave Beaton enough confidence to give up teaching to concentrate on the theater. He moved first to Bristol and then to Sussex where he he played the leading role in a musical he had written, Sit Down Banna at the Connaught Theatre. This was the beginning of his acting career. In the early seventies, Beaton began to perform in plays in London's West End, in 1970 he played the role of Ariel Shakespeare's The Tempest, which he described in his autobiography as "the most important role of my acting career." In 1975, he helped to establish the Black Theatre of Brixton. In 1976, Beaton broke into television in the series The Fosters, however it was his 6 year run (starting in 1988) on Desmonds as the title character that would become his most well known. In 1991 he appeared as a guest on the Bill Cosby show, he also appeared in several movies including The Mighty Quinn (1989). After years of hard living took began taking it’s toll on his health, he flew back to Guyana in 1994 collapsed at the airport and died a few hours later at the age of 60. He is survived by 5 children from 3 marriages.  (nationmaster/carib hall of fame)
1952  Bernard Edwards bassist/songwriter/producer born today. With Niles Rogers they started as the Big Apple Band in the early 70's, but went on to big success with Chic, Sister Sledge and Diana Ross. Edwards's bass licks went on to be some of the most copied/sampled lines of the 1980's along with James Brown. Listen to the introduction on Dance, Dance, Dance by Chic to hear his style. (mn-jt)
1992  Lennox Lewis wins Heavyweight title - but not in the ring.
1997  Little Richie, PCRL DJ appears at Birmingham Magistrate Court and pleads guilty to the Illegal broadcasting charges made against him. He is given £3,010 fine with costs plus two years probation and a 100 hours community work. (mn)
1998  Founding Congress, Britain's first political party for people of African origin organises a two day event, at the New Initiatives,55 Wellington Road, London, NW1. Guest speakers included Myrna Simpson (Mother of Joy Gardener) and Neville Laurence. (mn-bb7)
2006 South Africa's last hardline white president, PW Botha, has died at the age of 90. Security staff at his home on the southern Cape coast were quoted as saying that he died on Tuesday at 6pm GMT. Captain Frikkie Lucas said: "Botha died at home, peacefully." Mr Botha led the country through its worst racial violence and deepest international isolation. Nicknamed the "Old Crocodile" for his feared temper, he served as head of the white racist government from 1978 to 1989. Throughout his leadership he resisted mounting pressure to release South Africa's most famous political prisoner, Nelson Mandela. Mr Mandela was freed by Mr Botha's successor, FW de Klerk, in 1990. In 1998 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission declared Mr Botha guilty of gross human rights violations by ordering killings and bombings. But his failing health helped him escape prosecution and he spent his final years in seclusion at a seaside resort. (yahoo)
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